The Bible Teaches That the Heavens Were a Solid Dome, Embedded with Stars?
by Rich Deem

Introduction

The Bible teaches that the earth was "flat and circular sitting on pillars with a rotating solid sky dome overhead which carried the Sun, the Moon, and the Stars and allowed water to leak through 'windows of heaven' or sluice gates to form clouds and rain."1 If the claim is true that the Bible teaches such a primitive cosmology, then nobody should believe that it originates from God nor follow its precepts. So, let's look at what the Bible really says about the heavens and the earth and whether the atheists' claims are valid.

Ancient cosmologies

Skeptics are correct in saying that many of the ancients believed in a flat earth that was covered by a solid dome. Below are listed some examples of ancient cosmologies prevalent 2,000-5,000 years ago.

Sumerians

Ancient Sumerian hymns and myths provide a picture of the universe's (anki) creation. The Sumerians believed that a primeval sea (abzu) existed before anything else and that the heaven (an) and the earth (ki) were formed within it. The boundary between the primeval sea and the earth (a flat disk) was a solid vault, within which was the gas-like atmosphere (lil). The stars, planets, sun, and moon were embedded in this solid vault.2 Each of the four major Sumerian deities was associated with one of these regions; An (god of heaven), Ki (goddess of earth, also known as Ninhursag, Ninmah, or Nintu), Enlil (god of the air, son of An and Ki), and Enki (god of the primeval sea). According to their myths, An and Ki were the progenitors of most of the gods.2

Greeks

The Greek philosopher Anaximenes described the heavens as like a felt cap that turned on its head, with the stars fixed to this surface like nails.3

Jews

Some of the Jews also endorsed solid dome cosmology, For example, Josephus, the Jewish first century Jewish historian, believed that the earth was surrounded by a crystalline firmament:

After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews.4

A portion of the Jewish Talmud indicates that the Sun travelled under the firmament by day and above the firmament by night:

"The learned of Israel say, "The sphere stands firm, and the planets revolve"; the learned of the nations say, "The sphere moves, and the planets stand firm." The learned of Israel say, "The sun moves by day beneath the firmament, and by night above the firmament"; the learned of the nations say, "The sun moves by day beneath the firmament, and by night beneath the earth."5

Early Christians

Theophilus of Antioch, a second century Christian wrote that heaven was a dome-like covering:

"For the Spirit being one, and holding the place of light,(2) was between the water and the heaven, in order that the darkness might not in any way communicate with the heaven, which was nearer God, before God said, 'Let there be light.' The heaven, therefore, being like a dome-shaped covering, comprehended matter which was like a clod."6

Here is what the book of Enoch (a non-biblical ancient text) says about ancient cosmology:

And from thence I went to the ends of the earth and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other; and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and voice, the one differing from the other. And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven rests, and the portals of the heaven open. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their times and their months, as Uriel the holy angel who was with me showed me.7

Biblical passages reported to endorse dome cosmology

Although it would seem from this list that many ancients, including Christians, believed in dome cosmology, this evidence does not answer the original question - Does the Bible teach dome cosmology? Let's examine specific biblical passages that skeptics say teach dome cosmology.

The firmament

The main reason why skeptics have said the Bible endorses dome cosmology comes from the King James version (KJV) translation of the Bible. Here is the KJV translation of Genesis 1:6-8:

And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters." And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. (Genesis 1:6-8)

The word "firmament" implies a solid material, coming from the Latin word "firmamentum," from Jerome's Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible. The Latin word firmamentum has the meaning of a "support," or "prop." However, the original Hebrew word, raqia,8 which Jerome translated into the Latin word firmamentum, is not nearly as specific. Raqia comes from the Hebrew verb raqa, which means "beat," "stamp," "beat out" and "spread out." Occurring 11 times in the Old Testament, raqa has the meaning to "stamp one's feet" (twice), stamp something with the feet (once), spreading metal (four times), spreading out the earth (three times), and spreading the sky or the clouds (once).9 So, the verb raqa does not necessarily refer to the beating out of a solid object, but to a spreading out process, whether the object be solid or not.

Raqia

The Hebrew noun raqia is used 17 times in the Bible. Eleven of those instances occur in 7 verses from Genesis 1.10 Five instances of raqia occur in Ezekiel's visions11 - once referring to the expanse (or extent) of the angels' wings and the other four referring to something that appeared to be like a gleaming crystal, although it is never identified as being a solid object. Two others occur in the Psalms,12 once referring to the expanse as described in Genesis (also written by Moses), and the second referring to the mighty expanse of God's power.12 So, raqia itself does not always refer to a solid object.

Genesis 1:8 says that God Himself defines what the raqia is, saying "God called the expanse heaven." So, the so-called firmament is nothing more than heaven itself and does not comprise a separate structure. This fact is further emphasized in Genesis 1:20, where God says, "... let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens."10 Obviously, birds cannot fly through a solid structure, clearly indicating that raqia is not a solid object.

Pillars of heaven

In the book of Job, Job is talking to his four "friends," and eventually to God Himself. During one of these long discourses, Job talks about God's creation, referring to the "pillars of the heavens." Skeptics say that the pillars hold up the solid dome firmament above the earth. However, before deciding exactly what these "pillars of the heavens" are, we should look at the verse in context:

As one can see, Job comes up with some rather remarkable insights into the nature of the earth. He says that the earth is suspended over nothing and that the clouds carry water and have weight, yet do not fall to earth. In the context of the passage, it is clear that the "pillars" are the mountains, which quake at God's rebuke. Whereas the Quran says the earth is like a carpet13 that is held in place by the heavy mountains, described as being like tent pegs,14 so that it won't move or shake,15 the Bible associates the mountains with shaking16 and says that, instead of placing the mountains on the earth, God caused the mountains to rise up.17 So, it is pretty obvious that these pillars aren't holding anything up, but are merely free-standing pillars, similar to those found in Solomon's Temple.18

The molten mirror

Another example given for the claim that the Bible teaches there is a solid dome that holds the stars comes from the book of Job:

"Can you, with Him, spread out the skies, strong as a molten mirror?" (Job 37:18)

Out of context, it seems like an open and shut case that the Bible teaches that the skies are solid. However, there are some definite problems with the English translation of this verse. First, the Hebrew word shachaq,19 translated "skies" is probably a bad translation of the Hebrew. The usual word that would have been used for "sky" or "heaven" is shamayim.20 The meaning of the Hebrew word shachaq is usually "cloud" or "dust."21 Looking at the context of Job 37, the entire beginning of the chapter is describing a violent storm.22 In three other instances within the same chapter, the word shachaq is translated as "cloud," so it would make sense to translate it as "cloud" in this verse, also. The Hebrew word rei, translated "mirror,"23 is found nowhere else in the Old Testament, so its exact meaning remains uncertain. However, it is derived from the Hebrew word raah, which means "to appear" or "to see."24 Further evidence that rei does not mean "mirror" comes from the Greek LXX translation of the Hebrew Old Testament (translated by the Jews into Greek during the 3rd to 1st centuries BC), where the translators used the Greek word horasis, which means "appearance."25 From this information, we can come up with a much better translation that fits the context of the chapter:

"Can you, with Him, spread out the mighty clouds, with a molten appearance?" (Job 37:18)

This translation fits the context much better, since the entire first part of Job 37 is about a storm. In addition, the sky does not have a molten, flowing appearance, but clouds do. So, from the context, it is pretty obvious that this verse is referring to the appearance of clouds and not some solid "firmament."

The other complication for atheists trying to pin a solid sky teaching on this verse from Job is God's response to Elihu's sermon on creation. In the very next chapter, God rebukes Elihu with some pretty strong words:

"Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge?" (Job 38:2)

In other words, God tells Job that his friend doesn't know what he is talking about. So much for this claim that the Bible endorses the idea that the skies are a solid dome. Since God Himself answered Job in a 5 chapter sermon, atheists would have a valid point if they found an error in any of those chapters. However, you won't find any complaints about the content of chapters 38-42. In fact, chapter 38 accurately establishes the initial conditions of the earth (covered with a thick layer of clouds):

"Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?... When I made a cloud its garment And thick darkness its swaddling band" (Job 38:4, 9)

The vaulted dome

Another Bible verse skeptics claims teaches dome cosmology comes from the book of Amos:

The One who builds His upper chambers in the heavens And has founded His vaulted dome over the earth... (Amos 9:6)

This is the only verse in which the word "dome" actually appears in English translations of the Bible, but it is only found in the NASB translation. Here are some other translations of the verse:

The Hebrew word in question is aguddah, meaning a band:- band(1), bands(1), bunch(1).27 The other translations use the word "foundation" (NIV) and troop" (KJV). Here are the other three verses in which the word aguddah appears:

So, it is obvious that the NASB translation of Amos 9:6 is off base. This example is typical of the kind of objections raised by atheists. Their MO is to find an unusual translation (usually found in only one translation) and use this as "proof" that the Bible is inaccurate.

Ends of the Earth

The Bible makes numerous references to "the ends of the earth."28 Obviously, if the earth were spherical, it would have no ends. Don't these verses show that the Bible promulgates a flat earth theology? In reality, the Bible almost never refers to planet earth (except in its obvious cosmological passages). The Hebrew word erets, sometimes translated into the English word "earth," nearly always refers to local geography ("land") or the ground ("dirt"). Most often, passages reference specific geography (usually the land around Israel):

So, most often, the word "land: should be used in place of "earth." In many instances erets, doesn't refer to earth or land or dirt, but to the people who live in the land:

Although we tend to think of the earth as a cosmological entity, the word erets should, almost always be translated, "land" or "people." So, the "ends of the earth" really refers to lands surrounding Israel and its peoples.

Four corners of the earth

There are some references in some English translations to the "four corners of the earth," as exemplified in Isaiah:

And He � will gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. (Isaiah 11:12, NASB)

Obviously, a spherical earth does not have corners. So, does this verse imply that the Bible teaches a flat earth? Other translations do not use the word "corners," as seen below:

Obviously, there is something unusual about these "corners." Actually, the Hebrew word translated "corners" is kânâph, which actually refers to the wing of a bird (translated literally in the Literal Translation of the Holy Bible, LITV, above). So, the phrase is an idiom that refers to the four points of the compass (north, south, east, and west). The verse has nothing to do with the earth being flat. The next thing you know, the atheists will be claiming that the Bible says the earth is a bird, since it has wings!

Biblical cosmology

The Bible does present a cosmological model of the universe, although, being a spiritual guide rather than a scientific one, it is not overly detailed. Even so, it is scientifically accurate. Overall, the Bible presents God as the Creator of the entire universe (matter, energy, space, and time). It makes the following audacious claims, which contradicted the prevalent ancient cosmologies, but have been confirmed by modern science:

Contrary to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the Bible does not say that the earth is the center of the universe, but that the universe actually controls the earth.36 In addition, the Bible correctly identifies the order of creation.37 The Bible's description of the heavens comprise three different areas - the three "heavens." Of these heavens, the third heaven is God's abode,38 which is not part of the physical universe.39 The second heaven is also called "the highest heavens," and contains the stars.40 The first heaven is the atmosphere - the raqia or biblical expanse, in which the birds fly10 and clouds form to produce rain.41

Conclusion Top of page

Although many ancients did believe in a solid dome heaven, the claims that the Bible espouse this view are shown to be false. Skeptics who make these claims rely upon poor English translations of the original Hebrew verses, taken out of context, in order to "prove" that the Bible teaches a false cosmology. In contrast, this page shows that the Bible teaches an advanced cosmology that was not fully verified until the 20th century.



References Top of page

  1. The Bible's flat earth/solid sky dome universe. From Capella's Guide to Atheism.
  2. Samuel Noah Kramer, Sumerian Mythology
  3. Anaximenes [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  4. Flavius Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews: Book 1 - Chapter 1
  5. Pesahim 94b (from Wikipedia)
  6. Theophilus to Autolycus Book 2, Chapter 13
  7. Enoch 33:1-3
  8. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H7549. raqia, [956a]; from H7554; an extended surface, expanse:-- expanse (16), expanse of heaven (1).
  9. Verses in which raqa (Strong's H7554) are found:
    • Then they hammered out gold sheets and cut them into threads to be woven in with the blue and the purple and the scarlet material, and the fine linen, the work of a skillful workman. (Exodus 39:3)
    • So Eleazar the priest took the bronze censers which the men who were burned had offered; and they hammered them out as a plating for the altar (Numbers 16:39)
    • "Then I pulverized them as the dust of the earth, I crushed and stamped them as the mire of the streets." (2 Samuel 22:43)
    • "Can you, with Him, spread out the skies, Strong as a molten mirror?" (Job 37:18)
    • To Him who spread out the earth above the waters, For His lovingkindness is everlasting; (Psalm 136:6)
    • As for the idol, a craftsman casts it, A goldsmith plates it with gold, And a silversmith fashions chains of silver. (Isaiah 40:19)
    • Thus says God the Lord, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it, And spirit to those who walk in it, (Isaiah 42:5)
    • Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, "I, the Lord, am the maker of all things, Stretching out the heavens by Myself, And spreading out the earth all alone" (Isaiah 44:24)
    • Beaten silver is brought from Tarshish, And gold from Uphaz, The work of a craftsman and of the hands of a goldsmith; Violet and purple are their clothing; They are all the work of skilled men. (Jeremiah 10:9)
    • "Thus says the Lord God, 'Clap your hand, stamp your foot, and say, "Alas, because of all the evil abominations of the house of Israel, which will fall by sword, famine, and plague!"'" (Ezekiel 6:11)
    • 'For thus says the Lord God, "Because you have clapped your hands and stamped your feet and rejoiced with all the scorn of your soul against the land of Israel,"' (Ezekiel 25:6)
  10. Raqia in Genesis 1:
    • Then God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." (Genesis 1:6)
    • And God made the expanse, and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so. (Genesis 1:7)
    • And God called the expanse heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. (Genesis 1:8)
    • Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; (Genesis 1:14)
    • and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth"; and it was so. (Genesis 1:15)
    • And God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, (Genesis 1:17)
    • Then God said, "Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens." (Genesis 1:20)
  11. Raqia in Ezekiel:
    • Now over the heads of the living beings there was something like an expanse, like the awesome gleam of crystal, extended over their heads. (Ezekiel 1:22)
    • And under the expanse their wings were stretched out straight, one toward the other; each one also had two wings covering their bodies on the one side and on the other. (Ezekiel 1:23)
    • And there came a voice from above the expanse that was over their heads; whenever they stood still, they dropped their wings. (Ezekiel 1:25)
    • Now above the expanse that was over their heads there was something resembling a throne, like lapis lazuli in appearance; and on that which resembled a throne, high up, was a figure with the appearance of a man. (Ezekiel 1:26)
    • Then I looked, and behold, in the expanse that was over the heads of the cherubim something like a sapphire stone, in appearance resembling a throne, appeared above them. (Ezekiel 10:1)
  12. Raqia in the Psalms:
    • For the choir director. A Psalm of David. The heavens are telling of the glory of God; And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands. (Psalm 19:1)
    • Praise the Lord! Praise God in His sanctuary; Praise Him in His mighty expanse. (Psalm 150:1)
  13. (Yea, the same that) has made for you the earth (like a carpet) spread out, and has made for you roads (and channels) therein, in order that ye may find guidance (on the way); (Surah 43:10)
    "'And God has made the earth for you as a carpet (spread out), That ye may go about therein, in spacious roads.'" (Surah 71:19-20)
  14. Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse, And the mountains as pegs? (Surah 78:6-7)
  15. And We have set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with them, and We have made therein broad highways (between mountains) for them to pass through: that they may receive Guidance. (Surah 21:31)
    Or, Who has made the earth firm to live in; made rivers in its midst; set thereon mountains immovable; and made a separating bar between the two bodies of flowing water? (can there be another) god besides God? Nay, most of them know not. (Surah 27:61)
    He created the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; He set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rain from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs. (Surah 31:10)
    And the earth, moreover, hath He extended (to a wide expanse); He draweth out therefrom its moisture and its pasture; And the mountains hath He firmly fixed;- (Surah 79:30)
    And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm?- (Surah 88:19)
  16. "And with the best things of the ancient mountains, And with the choice things of the everlasting hills, (Deuteronomy 33:15)
    "It is God who removes the mountains, they know not how, When He overturns them in His anger; Who shakes the earth out of its place, And its foundations tremble; (Job 9:5-6)
    Then the earth shook and quaked; And the foundations of the mountains were trembling And were shaken, because He was angry. (Psalm 18:7)
    Though its waters roar and foam, Though the mountains quake at its swelling pride. Selah. (Psalm 46:3)
    He looks at the earth, and it trembles; He touches the mountains, and they smoke. (Psalm 104:32)
    On this account the anger of the LORD has burned against His people, And He has stretched out His hand against them and struck them down. And the mountains quaked, and their corpses lay like refuse in the middle of the streets. For all this His anger is not spent, But His hand is still stretched out. (Isaiah 5:25)
    "For the mountains may be removed and the hills may shake, But My lovingkindness will not be removed from you, And My covenant of peace will not be shaken," Says the LORD who has compassion on you. (Isaiah 54:10)
    Oh, that You would rend the heavens and come down, That the mountains might quake at Your presence-- (Isaiah 64:1)
    I looked on the mountains, and behold, they were quaking, And all the hills moved to and fro. (Jeremiah 4:24)
  17. You covered it with the deep as with a garment; The waters were standing above the mountains. At Your rebuke they fled, At the sound of Your thunder they hurried away. The mountains rose; the valleys sank down To the place which You established for them. (Psalm 104:6-8)
    Before the mountains were born Or You gave birth to the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God. (Psalm 90:2)
  18. See picture of Solomon's Temple.
  19. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H7834 shachaq (1007a); from H7833; dust, cloud: - clouds (6), skies (12), sky (2), speck of dust (1).
  20. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H8064 Shamayim - astrologers (1), compass (1), earth (1), heaven (191), heaven and the highest (2), heaven and the highest heavens (1), heaven of heavens (1), heavenly (3), heavens (151), heavens and the highest (1), highest heaven (1), highest heaven (1), highest heavens (4), horizons (1), other (1), sky (50).
  21. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H7834 shachaq (1007a); from H7833; dust, cloud: - clouds (6), skies (12), sky (2), speck of dust (1).
  22. Job 37:
    • "At this also my heart trembles, And leaps from its place. (Job 37:1)
    • "Listen closely to the thunder of His voice, And the rumbling that goes out from His mouth.(Job 37:2)
    • "Under the whole heaven He lets it loose, And His lightning to the ends of the earth.(Job 37:3)
    • "After it, a voice roars; He thunders with His majestic voice, And He does not restrain the lightnings when His voice is heard.(Job 37:4)
    • "God thunders with His voice wondrously, Doing great things which we cannot comprehend.(Job 37:5)
    • "For to the snow He says, 'Fall on the earth,' And to the downpour and the rain, 'Be strong.'(Job 37:6)
    • "He seals the hand of every man, That all men may know His work.(Job 37:7)
    • "Then the beast goes into its lair And remains in its den.(Job 37:8)
    • "Out of the south comes the storm, And out of the north the cold.(Job 37:9)
    • "From the breath of God ice is made, And the expanse of the waters is frozen.(Job 37:10)
    • "Also with moisture He loads the thick cloud; He disperses the cloud of His lightning.(Job 37:11)
    • "It changes direction, turning around by His guidance, That it may do whatever He commands it On the face of the inhabited earth.(Job 37:12)
    • "Whether for correction, or for His world, Or for lovingkindness, He causes it to happen.(Job 37:13)
    • "Listen to this, O Job, Stand and consider the wonders of God.(Job 37:14)
    • "Do you know how God establishes them, And makes the lightning of His cloud to shine?(Job 37:15)
    • "Do you know about the layers of the thick clouds, The wonders of one perfect in knowledge,(Job 37:16)
    • You whose garments are hot, When the land is still because of the south wind? (Job 37:17)
    • "Can you, with Him, spread out the skies, Strong as a molten mirror? (Job 37:18)
  23. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H7209 rei (909b); from H7200; a mirror: - mirror (1).
  24. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H7200 raah (906b); a prim. root; to see: - access (1), advisers *(2), appear (21), appeared (43), appears (4), approve (2), became aware (1), became visible (1), become visible (1), behold (9), choice (1), consider (13), considered (1), display (1), displayed (1), distinguish (1), encountered (1), enjoy (1), enjoy *(3), examined (1), experience (1), exposed (1), face *(2), faced *(2), find (1), gaze (2), give attention (1), gloat (2), heed (1), indeed look (1), keep on looking (1), look (71), looked (59), looked and saw (1), looking (5), looks (11), make an inspection (2), make me see (1), makes an inspection (1), noticed (1), observe (1), observed (5), observing (1), perceive (2), perceived (2), presents (1), provide (3), provided (2), public (1), regard (2), regarded (2), regards (1), remained alive (1), saw (310), search (1), see (410), see as a sees (1), see plainly (1), seeing (5), seemed (1), seen (153), sees (32), select (1), selected (1), show (24), showed (16), shown (18), shows (1), sleep *(1), stare (2), staring (1), supervise (1), surely seen (1), take into consideration (1), take heed (1), tell (1), think (1), understand (1), view (1), vision (1), visit (1), watch (2).
  25. NASEC Greek Dictionary - Strong's 3706 horasis - appearance (2), vision (1), visions (1).
  26. Book of Amos, LXX English translation from the Greek by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton 1851.
  27. NASEC Hebrew Dictionary - Strong's H92. aguddah, [8a]; from an unused word; a band:-- band(1), bands(1), bunch(1).
  28. "Ends of the earth" verses:
    • of the gods of the peoples who are around you, near you or far from you, from one end of the earth to the other end), (Deuteronomy 13:7)
    • "The LORD will bring a nation against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as the eagle swoops down, a nation whose language you shall not understand, (Deuteronomy 28:49)
    • "Moreover, the LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth; and there you shall serve other gods, wood and stone, which you or your fathers have not known. (Deuteronomy 28:64)
    • "If your outcasts are at the ends of the earth, from there the LORD your God will gather you, and from there He will bring you back. (Deuteronomy 30:4)
    • "As the firstborn of his ox, majesty is his, And his horns are the horns of the wild ox; With them he will push the peoples, All at once, to the ends of the earth. And those are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And those are the thousands of Manasseh." (Deuteronomy 33:17)
    • "Those who contend with the LORD will be shattered; Against them He will thunder in the heavens, The LORD will judge the ends of the earth; And He will give strength to His king, And will exalt the horn of His anointed." (1 Samuel 2:10)
    • "For He looks to the ends of the earth And sees everything under the heavens. (Job 28:24)
    • "Under the whole heaven He lets it loose, And His lightning to the ends of the earth. (Job 37:3)
    • That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, And the wicked be shaken out of it? (Job 38:13)
    • 'Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Your inheritance, And the very ends of the earth as Your possession. (Psalms 2:8)
    • All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the LORD, And all the families of the nations will worship before You. (Psalms 22:27)
    • He makes wars to cease to the end of the earth; He breaks the bow and cuts the spear in two; He burns the chariots with fire. (Psalms 46:9)
    • As is Your name, O God, So is Your praise to the ends of the earth; Your right hand is full of righteousness. (Psalms 48:10)
    • Destroy them in wrath, destroy them that they may be no more; That men may know that God rules in Jacob To the ends of the earth. Selah. (Psalms 59:13)
    • From the end of the earth I call to You when my heart is faint; Lead me to the rock that is higher than I. (Psalms 61:2)
    • By awesome deeds You answer us in righteousness, O God of our salvation, You who are the trust of all the ends of the earth and of the farthest sea; (Psalms 65:5)
    • They who dwell in the ends of the earth stand in awe of Your signs; You make the dawn and the sunset shout for joy. (Psalms 65:8)
    • God blesses us, That all the ends of the earth may fear Him. (Psalms 67:7)
    • May he also rule from sea to sea And from the River to the ends of the earth. (Psalms 72:8)
    • He has remembered His lovingkindness and His faithfulness to the house of Israel; All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God. (Psalms 98:3)
    • He causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; Who makes lightnings for the rain, Who brings forth the wind from His treasuries. (Psalms 135:7)
    • Wisdom is in the presence of the one who has understanding, But the eyes of a fool are on the ends of the earth. (Proverbs 17:24)
    • Who has ascended into heaven and descended? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has wrapped the waters in His garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is His name or His son's name? Surely you know! (Proverbs 30:4)
    • He will also lift up a standard to the distant nation, And will whistle for it from the ends of the earth; And behold, it will come with speed swiftly. (Isaiah 5:26)
    • From the ends of the earth we hear songs, "Glory to the Righteous One," But I say, "Woe to me! Woe to me! Alas for me! The treacherous deal treacherously, And the treacherous deal very treacherously." (Isaiah 24:16)
    • Do you not know? Have you not heard? The Everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth Does not become weary or tired. His understanding is inscrutable. (Isaiah 40:28)
    • The coastlands have seen and are afraid; The ends of the earth tremble; They have drawn near and have come. (Isaiah 41:5)
    • You whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, And called from its remotest parts And said to you, 'You are My servant, I have chosen you and not rejected you. (Isaiah 41:9)
    • Sing to the LORD a new song, Sing His praise from the end of the earth! You who go down to the sea, and all that is in it. You islands, and those who dwell on them. (Isaiah 42:10)
    • "I will say to the north, 'Give them up!' And to the south, 'Do not hold them back.' Bring My sons from afar And My daughters from the ends of the earth, (Isaiah 43:6)
    • "Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am God, and there is no other. (Isaiah 45:22)
    • Go forth from Babylon! Flee from the Chaldeans! Declare with the sound of joyful shouting, proclaim this, Send it out to the end of the earth; Say, "The LORD has redeemed His servant Jacob." (Isaiah 48:20)
    • He says, "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth." (Isaiah 49:6)
    • The LORD has bared His holy arm In the sight of all the nations, That all the ends of the earth may see The salvation of our God. (Isaiah 52:10)
    • Behold, the LORD has proclaimed to the end of the earth, Say to the daughter of Zion, "Lo, your salvation comes; Behold His reward is with Him, and His recompense before Him." (Isaiah 62:11)
    • O LORD, my strength and my stronghold, And my refuge in the day of distress, To You the nations will come From the ends of the earth and say, "Our fathers have inherited nothing but falsehood, Futility and things of no profit." (Jeremiah 16:19)
    • 'A clamor has come to the end of the earth, Because the LORD has a controversy with the nations. He is entering into judgment with all flesh; As for the wicked, He has given them to the sword,' declares the LORD." (Jeremiah 25:31)
    • "Those slain by the LORD on that day will be from one end of the earth to the other. They will not be lamented, gathered or buried; they will be like dung on the face of the ground. (Jeremiah 25:33)
    • When He utters His voice, there is a tumult of waters in the heavens, And He causes the clouds to ascend from the end of the earth; He makes lightning for the rain And brings forth the wind from His storehouses. (Jeremiah 51:16)
    • 'The tree grew large and became strong And its height reached to the sky, And it was visible to the end of the whole earth. (Daniel 4:11)
    • it is you, O king; for you have become great and grown strong, and your majesty has become great and reached to the sky and your dominion to the end of the earth. (Daniel 4:22)
    • And He will arise and shepherd His flock In the strength of the LORD, In the majesty of the name of the LORD His God. And they will remain, Because at that time He will be great To the ends of the earth. (Micah 5:4)
    • I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim And the horse from Jerusalem; And the bow of war will be cut off. And He will speak peace to the nations; And His dominion will be from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth. (Zechariah 9:10)
    • "The Queen of the South will rise up with this generation at the judgment and will condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, something greater than Solomon is here. (Matthew 12:42)
  29. No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. (1 Corinthians 2:7)
    This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time (2 Timothy 1:9)
    The hope of eternal life, which God... promised before the beginning of time (Titus 1:2)
    To the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen. (Jude 1:25)
  30. In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1)
    This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven. (Genesis 2:4)
    Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it, And spirit to those who walk in it, (Isaiah 42:5)
    "It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it. I stretched out the heavens with My hands, And I ordained all their host. (Isaiah 45:12)
    For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it and did not create it a waste place, But formed it to be inhabited), "I am the LORD, and there is none else. (Isaiah 45:18)
    For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities-- all things have been created by Him and for Him. (Colossians 1:16)
    "Worthy art Thou, our Lord and our God, to receive glory and honor and power; for Thou didst create all things, and because of Thy will they existed, and were created." (Revelation 4:11)
  31. The universe was formed at God's command, so that what was seen was not made out of what was visible. (Hebrews 11:3)
  32. For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Romans 8:38-39)
  33. Who alone stretches out the heavens, And tramples down the waves of the sea; (Job 9:8)
    Covering Thyself with light as with a cloak, Stretching out heaven like a tent curtain. (Psalm 104:2)
    It is He who sits above the circle of the earth, And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in. (Isaiah 40:22)
    Thus says God the Lord, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and its offspring, Who gives breath to the people on it, And spirit to those who walk in it, (Isaiah 42:5)
    Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, "I, the Lord, am the maker of all things, Stretching out the heavens by Myself, And spreading out the earth all alone" (Isaiah 44:24)
    "It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it. I stretched out the heavens with My hands, And I ordained all their host." (Isaiah 45:12)
    "Surely My hand founded the earth, And My right hand spread out the heavens; When I call to them, they stand together." (Isaiah 48:13)
    That you have forgotten the Lord your Maker, Who stretched out the heavens, And laid the foundations of the earth; That you fear continually all day long because of the fury of the oppressor, As he makes ready to destroy? But where is the fury of the oppressor? (Isaiah 51:13)
    It is He who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom; And by His understanding He has stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 10:12)
    It is He who made the earth by His power, Who established the world by His wisdom, And by His understanding He stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 51:15)
    The burden of the word of the Lord concerning Israel. Thus declares the Lord who stretches out the heavens, lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit of man within him, (Zechariah 12:1)
  34. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven. (Genesis 2:3-4)
  35. In the beginning you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. Like clothing you will change them and they will be discarded. But you remain the same, and your years will never end. (Psalm 102:25-27)
    that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God. (Romans 8:21)
  36. "Do you know the ordinances of the heavens, or fix their rule over the earth?" (Job 38:33)
  37. See Day-Age Genesis One Interpretation
  38. I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago--whether in the body I do not know, or out of the body I do not know, God knows--such a man was caught up to the third heaven. (2 Corinthians 12:2)
  39. "But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built! (1 Kings 8:27)
    But who is able to build a temple for him, since the heavens, even the highest heavens, cannot contain him? Who then am I to build a temple for him, except as a place to burn sacrifices before him? (2 Chronicles 2:6)
  40. You alone are the LORD. You made the heavens, even the highest heavens, and all their starry host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them. You give life to everything, and the multitudes of heaven worship you. (Nehemiah 9:6)
  41. "The LORD will open for you His good storehouse, the heavens, to give rain to your land in its season and to bless all the work of your hand; and you shall lend to many nations, but you shall not borrow. (Deuteronomy 28:12)
    Who covers the heavens with clouds,Who provides rain for the earth, Who makes grass to grow on the mountains. (Psalm 147:8)
    "For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven, And do not return there without watering the earth And making it bear and sprout, And furnishing seed to the sower and bread to the eater; (Isaiah 55:10)

http://godandscience.org/apologetics/dome_of_heavens.html
Last Modified November 30, 2009

 

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