The Trinity: The Oneness and Plurality of God
by Rich Deem

Introduction

The Trinity Defined

The Trinity is the Christian doctrine that the Godhead consists of three persons, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, who are One God.

Rich Deem

The word "Trinity" does not appear anywhere in the Bible. For this reason, many people think that it is a false doctrine, created by the early church leaders. However, the word "gravity" is also not used anywhere in the Bible, although the concept is illustrated throughout. Despite all the protests, the doctrine of the Trinity is the overarching theme throughout the entire Bible. So, although God consists of three persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, often referred to as the "Godhead"), God is One. If God were merely a construct of this universe, such an idea would be a contradiction. However, God's transcendence explains the paradox. People who fail to comprehend the true nature of God either

  1. Degrade or deny two members of the Godhead
  2. Deny the Oneness of God (i.e., become polytheists)

God is Three

The plurality of God is found throughout the Old and New Testaments. This plurality is not an open-ended proposition. The Godhead consists of exactly three persons—God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit. The Bible vigorously refutes the Mormon assertion that human beings can become gods (category 2 error, above).

God the Father

The Deep Things of God: How the Trinity Changes Everything Although many people tend to think that the concept that God is our Father is only a New Testament idea, the Old Testament actually makes this claim throughout (Deuteronomy 32:6, Psalms 2:7, 89:26, Isaiah 9:6, 63:16, Jeremiah 3:4, 19, Amos 2:7, and Malachi 2:10)1 The New Testament makes it clear that God the Father exhibits attributes that are identical to those of God delineated in the Old Testament:

The Father Exhibits the Attributes of God
Attribute God The Father
Omnipotent (all powerful) Genesis 17:11, Chronicles 29:11 Matthew 18:19, John 10:29, Ephesians 4:6
Omniscient (all knowing) 1 John 3:20 1 Peter 1:2
Creator Isaiah 44:24 Malachi 2:10
Savior Isaiah 43:11, 45:21 Isaiah 63:16
Judge of mankind Isaiah 3:13, 14 1 Peter 1:17
Eternal Genesis 21:33 Isaiah 63:16
Holy 1 Samuel 2:2 Matthew 6:9, Luke 11:2, John 17:11
Perfect Deuteronomy 32:4 Matthew 5:48
Forgives sin 2 Chronicles 7:14 Matthew 6:14, 15, Luke 23:34
Gives eternal life Proverbs 19:23 John 12:50
Rewards humans Isaiah 40:10 Matthew 6:1, 4, 6, John 12:26
Greatest name Nehemiah 9:5 John 12:28
Has charge of the angels Psalms 103:20 Matthew 26:53
Home is Heaven Deuteronomy 4:39, 10:14 Matthew 5:16, 45, 48, 6:9, 14, 7:21
Resurrects the dead Acts 26:8 John 5:21
Sanctifies people Exodus 31:13, Leviticus 20:8 Hebrews 2:11
To be worshiped Exodus 34:14 John 4:21, Ephesians 3:14

More information can be found at The Father is God.

God the Son

The deity of Jesus Christ is often a contentious issue, although the scriptural evidence for its veracity is actually overwhelming. For example, the New Testament makes it clear that Jesus has identical attributes of God and the Father, which we saw above:

Jesus Christ, the Son, Exhibits the Attributes of God
Attribute God Jesus Christ
Omnipotent (all powerful) 1 Chronicles 29:11 Philippians 3:20-21
Omniscient (all knowing) 1 John 3:20 Colossians 2:2-3
Creator Proverbs 15:3 2 Corinthians 2:14
Savior Isaiah 44:24 John 1:3
Judge of mankind Isaiah 43:11, 45:21 Acts 4:12
Eternal Isaiah 3:13, 14 2 Corinthians 5:10
Holy Genesis 21:33 Micah 5:2
Perfect 1 Samuel 2:2 Acts 3:14
Forgives sin Deuteronomy 32:4 Hebrews 7:28
Gives eternal life 2 Chronicles 7:14 Matthew 9:6
Rewards humans Isaiah 40:10 Matthew 16:27
Greatest name Nehemiah 9:5 Philippians 2:9
Has charge of the angels Psalms 103:20 2 Thessalonians 1:7
Home is Heaven Deuteronomy 4:39, 10:14 John 3:13, Philippians 3:20
Resurrects the dead Acts 26:8 John 6:40
Sanctifies people Exodus 31:13, Leviticus 20:8 John 17:19
To be worshiped Exodus 34:14 Revelation 5:12-13

Jesus exhibits dozens of other attributes that are only associated with God (see The Son, Jesus Christ, is God). In addition, dozens of verses directly state that Jesus is God in human form.2 Jesus Himself indicated numerous times that He was God (see Jesus Christ Never Said He Was God?). For more information, about the deity of Jesus Christ see Was Jesus God?

God the Holy Spirit

As is true of God the Father and God the Son, God the Holy Spirit shares the same attributes:

The Holy Spirit Exhibits the Attributes of God
Attribute God Holy Spirit
Omnipotent (all powerful) 1 Chronicles 29:11  Luke 1:35, 4:14, Romans 15:13, 19, Ephesians 3:16 
Omniscient (all knowing) 1 John 3:20 1 Corinthians 2:10, 11
Creator Proverbs 15:3 Genesis 1:2, Job 33:4, Psalms 104:30
Savior Isaiah 44:24 Romans 8:11-15, Ephesians 1:13, Ephesians 4:30
Eternal Isaiah 3:13, 14 John 14:16, Hebrews 9:14
Holy Genesis 21:33 Romans 1:4
Gives eternal life 2 Chronicles 7:14 John 6:63, Galatians 6:8
Rewards humans Isaiah 40:10 Revelation 22:17
Greatest name Nehemiah 9:5 Matthew 28:19, 1 Corinthians 6:11
Home is Heaven Deuteronomy 4:39, 10:14 1 Peter 1:12
Resurrects the dead Acts 26:8 Romans 8:11
Sanctifies people Exodus 31:13, Leviticus 20:8 Romans 15:16, 1 Corinthians 6:11, 2 Thessalonians 2:13, 1 Peter 1:2

The Holy Spirit has many other attributes that are only associated with God (see The Holy Spirit is God). Many people say that the Holy Spirit is just an invisible force from God (i.e., as in "the force" in the Stars Wars sagas) and is not really a person. However, the Holy Spirit has the characteristics of persons, and is not just some impersonal force (see The Holy Spirit is God).

God is One

So, we have seen that the Bible makes it clear that the Godhead consists of three persons—God the Father, God the Son, and God the Spirit. However, throughout both the Old3 and New Testaments,4 the Bible makes it clear that God is One. So, God, in His essence, is One God.

The Trinity

The construction of the Trinity is, therefore, quite simple. God is three persons, but one essence, which follows from the four parameters listed above. Intellectually, we are unsatisfied, since it is quite impossible that 3 = 1. The paradox is solved in two ways.

Compound unity of oneness

Although the Old Testament says God is one, this oneness does not imply absolute singularity. The Hebrew word used to describe God's oneness is echad, which demonstrates compound unity of oneness.5 If the Hebrew text had intended to use absolute oneness, the word, yachid, would have been used.6 In all instances where oneness is used referring to God, the word echad is used. The Hebrew word translated "God" is the word El or Elohim. Elohim is actually the plural form of El. The plural form is used 2607 of the 2845 times the word "God" is used in the Old Testament. Not only is the word for God usually used in the plural form, but several verses refer to God as "Us."7 An example of how the Hebrew word Elohim is used in the plural is that it is translated "gods" (referring to idols) 235 times in the Old Testament. It is exactly the same word that is translated "God," referring to the Almighty:

"I am the LORD your God [Elohim], who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. "You shall have no other gods [Elohim] before Me. (Exodus 20:2-3)

For more information on the compound unity of God's oneness see The Triunity of God in The Old Testament.

Extra dimensions

Beyond the Cosmos: What Recent Discoveries in Astrophysics Reveal about the Glory and Love of GodIn this universe, it is not possible for an entity to be one and three at the same time. However, what most people fail to realize is that God is not restricted to this universe. This concept is found in the biblical claim that God created the entire universe, including its dimension of time. In order to be true, God must exist and be able to operate in dimensions of space and time other than those to which we are confined. God could not have created the universe if He were only a part of it. The Bible says the universe cannot contain Him.8 According to string theory (originating from particle physics), at least ten dimensions of space existed at the creation of the universe.9 Three of these dimensions (plus time) formed the space-time manifold that we can directly observe and inhabit. The other six of these dimensions exist within the universe as incredibly compact dimensions of space. God must be able to operate in all of those ten dimensions plus more in order to have created the universe. The Bible suggests God created the universe out of some of the dimensions of space and time which are not visible to us (Hebrews 11:3). As an extradimensional being, God could appear to us as three persons, while being one essence in His full glory. To understand how this is possible, see The Extra-dimensional Nature of God.

Anti-Trinitarian heresies

Those who deny the reality of the Trinity do so primarily because they tend to diminish the true nature of God. In Arianism, Jesus is diminished from being God to being merely a created being acting as God's messenger. The Holy Spirit's deity is stripped away by claiming He is just representative of God's spirit in the world (even though God Himself already is Spirit, John 4:24). A modern example of Arianism are the Jehovah's Witnesses. In modalism, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are merely different "faces" or "modes" of God and not separate persons. So, God can manifest Himself as Jesus or the Holy Spirit, but they are just different versions of God. A modern example of modalism is Oneness Pentecostalism. In the theology of the Latter Day Saints (Mormons), Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three separate gods among a "council of gods." Obedient human beings can join them as gods themselves after death. Therefore, God is brought down to the level of created human beings.

Conclusion Top of page

The Bible makes it abundantly clear that God exists as God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. However, these three persons are not three separate gods, but One God. This Trinitarian concept of God might seem to be contradictory from a human standpoint, but is perfectly logical from God's extradimensional existence. Anti-Trinitarian heresies either elevate humans to the level of God or demote one or more persons of the Godhead to non-God status. Don't fall into one of those traps!

"Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28:19)



References Top of page

  1. God is our Father from the Old Testament:
    • Is this the way you repay the LORD, O foolish and unwise people? Is he not your Father, your Creator, who made you and formed you? (Deuteronomy 32:6)
    • I will proclaim the decree of the LORD: He said to me, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father. (Psalms 2:7)
    • He will call out to me, 'You are my Father, my God, the Rock my Savior.' (Psalms 89:26)
    • For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6)
    • But you are our Father, though Abraham does not know us or Israel acknowledge us; you, O LORD, are our Father, our Redeemer from of old is your name. (Isaiah 63:16)
    • Yet, O LORD, you are our Father. We are the clay, you are the potter; we are all the work of your hand. (Isaiah 64:8)
    • Have you not just called to me: "My Father, my friend from my youth, (Jeremiah 3:4)
    • "I myself said, "'How gladly would I treat you like sons and give you a desirable land, the most beautiful inheritance of any nation.' I thought you would call me 'Father' and not turn away from following me. (Jeremiah 3:19)
    • They trample on the heads of the poor as upon the dust of the ground and deny justice to the oppressed. Father and son use the same girl and so profane my holy name. (Amos 2:7)
    • Have we not all one Father? Did not one God create us? Why do we profane the covenant of our fathers by breaking faith with one another? (Malachi 2:10)
  2. The Bible says Jesus is God:
    • Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which translated means, "God with us." (Matthew 1:23)
    • And fear gripped them all, and they began glorifying God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited His people!" (Luke 7:16)
    • In the beginning was the Word...and the Word was God. (John 1:1)
    • No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten God, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him. (John 1:18)
    • He [Jesus]... was calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God. (John 5:18)
    • I and the Father are one. (John 10:30)
    • The Jews answered Him [Jesus], "For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy; and because You, being a man, make Yourself out to be God." (John 10:33)
    • You call Me Teacher and Lord; and you are right, for so I am. (John 13:13)
    • Jesus said to him, "...He who has seen Me has seen the Father; how do you say, `Show us the Father?'" (John 14:9)
    • And now, glorify Thou Me together with Thyself, Father, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was. (John 17:5)
    • Thomas answered and said to Him [Jesus], "My Lord and my God!" (John 20:28)
    • "The word which He sent to the sons of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ (He is Lord of all) (Acts 10:36)
    • For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, abounding in riches for all who call on Him (Romans 10:12)
    • the wisdom which none of the rulers of this age has understood; for if they had understood it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory (1 Corinthians 2:8)
    • ...the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Corinthians 4:4)
    • ...Christ Jesus, who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, (Philippians 2:6)
    • ...to Christ. For in Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form, (Colossians 2:9)
    • God was manifest in the flesh... (1 Timothy 3:16)
    • ...our Lord Jesus Christ, which He will bring about at the proper time-- He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords; (1 Timothy 6:15)
    • God...in these last days has spoken to us in His Son...And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature... (Hebrews 1:2-3)
    • But of the Son He says, "Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever... (Hebrews 1:8)
    • ...the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus; (Titus 2:13)
    • Simon Peter ... by the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ: (2 Peter 1:1)
    • And on His robe and on His thigh He [Jesus] has a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." (Revelation 19:16)
  3. The Old Testament says there is but one God:
    • Then he said, "Tomorrow." So he said, "May it be according to your word, that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. (Exodus 8:10)
    • "For this time I will send all My plagues on you and your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like Me in all the earth. (Exodus 9:14)
    • "To you it was shown that you might know that the Lord, He is God; there is no other besides Him. (Deuteronomy 4:35)
    • "Know therefore today, and take it to your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and on the earth below; there is no other. (Deuteronomy 4:39)
    • "Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord is one! (Deuteronomy 6:4)
    • See now that I, I am He, And there is no god besides Me; It is I who put to death and give life. I have wounded, and it is I who heal; And there is no one who can deliver from My hand. (Deuteronomy 32:39)
    • "There is none like the God of Jeshurun, Who rides the heavens to your help, And through the skies in His majesty. (Deuteronomy 33:26)
    • "There is no one holy like the Lord, Indeed, there is no one besides Thee, Nor is there any rock like our God. (1 Samuel 2:2)
    • "For this reason Thou art great, O Lord God; for there is none like Thee, and there is no God besides Thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears. (2 Samuel 7:22)
    • And he said, "O Lord, the God of Israel, there is no God like Thee in heaven above or on earth beneath, who art keeping covenant and showing lovingkindness to Thy servants who walk before Thee with all their heart, (1 Kings 8:23)
    • so that all the peoples of the earth may know that the Lord is God; there is no one else. (1 Kings 8:60)
    • He trusted in the Lord, the God of Israel; so that after him there was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor among those who were before him. (2 Kings 18:5)
    • "O Lord, there is none like Thee, neither is there any God besides Thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears. (1 Chronicles 17:20)
    • And he said, "O Lord, the God of Israel, there is no god like Thee in heaven or on earth, keeping covenant and showing lovingkindness to Thy servants who walk before Thee with all their heart;" (2 Chronicles 6:14)
    • Many, O Lord my God, are the wonders which Thou hast done, And Thy thoughts toward us; There is none to compare with Thee; If I would declare and speak of them, They would be too numerous to count. (Psalm 40:5)
    • There is no one like Thee among the gods, O Lord; Nor are there any works like Thine. (Psalm 86:8)
    • "You are My witnesses," declares the Lord, "And My servant whom I have chosen, In order that you may know and believe Me, And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, And there will be none after Me. I, even I, am the Lord; And there is no savior besides Me." (Isaiah 43:10-11)
    • "Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel And his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: `I am the first and I am the last, And there is no God besides Me.'" (Isaiah 44:6)
    • Do not tremble and do not be afraid; Have I not long since announced it to you and declared it? And you are My witnesses. Is there any God besides Me, Or is there any other Rock? I know of none.'" (Isaiah 44:8)
    • "I am the Lord, and there is no other; Besides Me there is no God. I will gird you, though you have not known Me; That men may know from the rising to the setting of the sun That there is no one besides Me. I am the Lord, and there is no other," (Isaiah 45:5-6)
    • Thus says the Lord, "The products of Egypt and the merchandise of Cush And the Sabeans, men of stature, Will come over to you and will be yours; They will walk behind you, they will come over in chains And will bow down to you; They will make supplication to you: `Surely, God is with you, and there is none else, No other God.'" (Isaiah 45:14)
    • For thus says the Lord, who created the heavens (He is the God who formed the earth and made it, He established it and did not create it a waste place, But formed it to be inhabited), "I am the Lord, and there is none else. (Isaiah 45:18)
    • "Declare and set forth your case; Indeed, let them consult together. Who has announced this from of old? Who has long since declared it? Is it not I, the Lord? And there is no other God besides Me, A righteous God and a Savior; There is none except Me. Turn to Me, and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am God, and there is no other." (Isaiah 45:21-22)
    • "Remember the former things long past, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is no one like Me, (Isaiah 46:9)
    • There is none like Thee, O Lord; Thou art great, and great is Thy name in might. (Jeremiah 10:6)
    • Yet I have been the Lord your God Since the land of Egypt; And you were not to know any god except Me, For there is no savior besides Me. (Hosea 13:4)
    • "Thus you will know that I am in the midst of Israel, And that I am the Lord your God And there is no other; And My people will never be put to shame. (Joel 2:27)
    • "Do we not all have one father? Has not one God created us? Why do we deal treacherously each against his brother so as to profane the covenant of our fathers? (Malachi 2:10)
  4. The New Testament says that there is but one God:
    • Jesus answered, "The foremost is, `Hear, O Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' "The second is this, `You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these." And the scribe said to Him, "Right, Teacher, You have truly stated that He is One; and there is no one else besides Him;" (Mark 12:29-32)
    • "How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another, and you do not seek the glory that is from the one and only God? (John 5:44)
    • "You are doing the deeds of your father." They said to Him, "We were not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God." (John 8:41)
    • Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world, and that there is no God but one. (1 Corinthians 8:4)
    • yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things, and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him. (1 Corinthians 8:6)
    • There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all. (Ephesians 4:4-6)
    • For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, (1 Timothy 2:5)
    • For when God made the promise to Abraham, since He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, (Hebrews 6:13)
    • You believe that God is one. You do well; the demons also believe, and shudder. (James 2:19)
  5. Specific examples of how echad demonstrates compound unity:
    • For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one [echad] flesh. (Genesis 2:24)
    • Now the whole earth used the same [echad] language and the same [echad] words. (Genesis 11:1)
    • And the LORD said, "Behold, they are one [echad] people, and they all have the same [echad] language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them. (Genesis 11:6)
    • Then we will give you our daughters and take your daughters for ourselves. We'll settle among you and become one [echad] people with you. (Genesis 34:16)
    • Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of the LORD and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one [echad] voice, and said, "All the words which the LORD has spoken we will do!" (Exodus 24:3)
    • Then they came to the valley of Eshcol and from there cut down a branch with a single [echad] cluster of grapes; and they carried it on a pole between two men, with some of the pomegranates and the figs. (Numbers 13:23)
    • The whole [echad] assembly numbered 42,360, (Ezra 2:64)
    • They will be my people, and I will be their God. I will give them singleness [echad] of heart and action, so that they will always fear me for their own good and the good of their children after them. (Jeremiah 32:38-39)
  6. Specific examples of how the word, yachid demonstrates absolute oneness:
    • And He said, "Take now your son, your only [yachid] son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah; and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell you." (Genesis 22:2)
    • And he said, "Do not stretch out your hand against the lad, and do nothing to him; for now I know that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only [yachid] son, from Me." (Genesis 22:12)
    • and said, "By Myself I have sworn, declares the LORD, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only [yachid] son, (Genesis 22:16)
    • When Jephthah came to his house at Mizpah, behold, his daughter was coming out to meet him with tambourines and with dancing. Now she was his one and only [yachid] child; besides her he had neither son nor daughter. (Judges 11:34)
    • Deliver my soul from the sword, My only [yachid] life from the power of the dog. (Psalm 22:20)
    • Turn to me and be gracious to me, For I am lonely [yachid] and afflicted. (Psalm 25:16)
    • Lord, how long wilt Thou look on? Rescue my soul from their ravages, My only [yachid] life from the lions. (Psalm 35:17)
    • God makes a home for the lonely [yachid]; He leads out the prisoners into prosperity, only the rebellious dwell in a parched land. (Psalm 68:6)
    • When I was a son to my father, Tender and the only [yachid] son in the sight of my mother, (Proverbs 4:3)
    • O daughter of my people, put on sackcloth And roll in ashes; Mourn as for an only [yachid] son, A lamentation most bitter. For suddenly the destroyer Will come upon us. (Jeremiah 6:26)
    • "Then I shall turn your festivals into mourning And all your songs into lamentation; And I will bring sackcloth on everyone's loins And baldness on every head. And I will make it like a time of mourning for an only [yachid] son, And the end of it will be like a bitter day. (Amos 8:10)
    • "And I [YHVH] will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only [yachid] son, and they will weep bitterly over Him, like the bitter weeping over a first-born. (Zechariah 12:10)
  7. God is referred to as "Us:"
    • Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." (Genesis 1:26)
    • Then the LORD God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, lest he stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever"-- (Genesis 3:22)
    • "Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech." (Genesis 11:7)
    • Then I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, "Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us?" Then I said, "Here am I. Send me!" (Isaiah 6:8)
  8. Behold, heaven and the highest heavens cannot contain Thee... (1 Kings 8:27)
    The Almighty is beyond our reach. (Job 37:23)
  9. Glanz, J. 1997. Strings Unknot Problems in Particle Theory, Black Holes. Science 276:1969-1970.
    Kestenbaum, D. 1998. Practical Tests for an 'Untestable' Theory of Everything? Science 281:758-759.

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Last Modified October 25, 2011

 

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