Is the Chemical Origin of Life (Abiogenesis) a Realistic Scenario?
by Rich Deem

Introduction

Let us look at the origin of life. There are only two possibilities for the existence of life:

  1. Spontaneous assembly of life from chemicals
  2. There is a Creator who designed biological systems

If you deny the existence of a Creator, scientific studies demonstrate that you must believe each of the following things about the origin of life:

Scientific Facts

Solution

A property of an optically active compound to consist of only one enantiomer (left or right-handed form).Homochirality somehow arose in the sugars and A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids of Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic soups, although there is no mechanism by which this can occur (1) and is, in fact, prohibited by the Heat always flow from a hot object to a cold object. As a result, the entropy of the universe always increases until it eventually comes to equilibrium (no differential expression of heat).second law of thermodynamics (law of entropy). (2) reject the Heat always flow from a hot object to a cold object. As a result, the entropy of the universe always increases until it eventually comes to equilibrium (no differential expression of heat).second law of thermodynamics
In the absence of Proteins that encourage a biochemical reactions, usually speeding them up.enzymes, there is no chemical reaction that produces the sugar A five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of the RNA polymer.ribose (1), the "backbone" of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA and Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")
Chemical reactions in Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic soups produce other sugars that prevent Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA and Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication (1). discard chemistry data

science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")

Organic bases (cytosine and thymine in DNA, uracil in RNA) made from a single ring structure, which base-pair with purines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.Pyrimidine The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides (A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine and A pyrimidine base found in RNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.uracil) do not form under Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic conditions and only Organic bases (adenine and guanine) made from a double ring structure, which base-pair with pyrimidines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.purine (A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine and A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.guanine) The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides are found in A type of chondrite (rocky) meteorite that contains large amounts of carbon.carbonaceous meteorites (1) (i.e., Organic bases (cytosine and thymine in DNA, uracil in RNA) made from a single ring structure, which base-pair with purines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.pyrimidine The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides don't form in outer space either). discard chemistry data

science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")

Even if a method for formation of Organic bases (cytosine and thymine in DNA, uracil in RNA) made from a single ring structure, which base-pair with purines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.pyrimidine The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides could be found, the combination of The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides with A salt composed of the most highly oxidized acid of phosphorus.phosphate under Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic conditions produces not only Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides, but other products which interfere with Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA The process by which individual molecules are linked together to form a larger molecule (a polymer).polymerization and The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication (1). discard chemistry data

science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")

Organic bases (adenine and guanine) made from a double ring structure, which base-pair with pyrimidines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.Purine and Organic bases (cytosine and thymine in DNA, uracil in RNA) made from a single ring structure, which base-pair with purines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.pyrimidine Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides (The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides combined with A salt composed of the most highly oxidized acid of phosphorus.phosphate groups) do not form under Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic conditions (3). discard chemistry data

science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")

Neither Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA nor Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA can be synthesized in the absence of Proteins that encourage a biochemical reactions, usually speeding them up.enzymes. In theory, an A ribonucleic acid polymer that is capable of replicating RNA.RNA replicase could exist and code for its own The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication. The first synthesized A ribonucleic acid polymer that is capable of replicating RNA.RNA replicase was four times longer than any Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA that could form spontaneously (4). In addition, it was able to The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replicate only 16 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs at most, so it couldn't even The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replicate itself (5). science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")
Proteins that encourage a biochemical reactions, usually speeding them up.Enzymes cannot be synthesized in the absence of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA and Complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosomes. science of the gaps ("promissory materialism")
The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).Nucleosides and A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids cannot form in the presence of oxygen, which is now known to have been present on the earth for at least 4.3 billion years ago (6), although life arose at least ~3.5 billion years ago (7). discard geological data

discard chemistry data

A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.Adenine synthesis requires unreasonable HCN concentrations. A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.Adenine The removal of the amino group from an amino acid or other amino compound.deaminates with a half-life of 80 years (at 37°C, pH 7). Therefore, A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine would never accumulate in any kind of "Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic soup." The A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine-A pyrimidine base found in RNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.uracil interaction is weak and nonspecific, and, therefore, would never be expected to function in any specific recognition scheme under the chaotic conditions of a "Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic soup." (8) discard chemistry data
A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.Cytosine has never been found in any meteorites nor is it produced in electric spark discharge experiments using simulated "early earth atmosphere." All possible intermediates suffer severe problems (9). A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.Cytosine The removal of the amino group from an amino acid or other amino compound.deaminates with an estimated half-life of 340 years, so would not be expected to accumulate over time. Ultraviolet light on the early earth would quickly convert A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine to its photohydrate and cyclobutane photodimers (which rapidly The removal of the amino group from an amino acid or other amino compound.deaminate) (10). discard geological data

discard chemistry data

Mixture of A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids the Murchison meteorite show that there are many classes of Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic substances that would disrupt the necessary structural regularity of any Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA-like A biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replicator (11). Metabolic replicators suffer from a lack of an ability to evolve, since they do not mutate (12). discard chemistry data
The most common abiogenesis theories claim that life arose at hydrothermal vents in the ocean. However, recent studies show that The process by which individual molecules are linked together to form a larger molecule (a polymer).polymerization of the molecules necessary for cell membrane assembly cannot occur in salt water (13). Other studies show that the early oceans were at least twice as salty as they are now (14) Life arose in freshwater ponds (even though the earth had very little land mass), using some unknown mechanism.

Comparison of the dates of meteor impacts on the moon, Mercury, and Mars indicate that at least 30 catastrophic meteor impacts must have occurred on the earth from 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago (15). These impacts were of such large size that the energy released would have vaporized the entirety of the earth's oceans (16), destroying all life.

Life spontaneously arose by chance at least 30 separate times, each within a period of ~10 million years
Complex bacterial life (oxygenic A metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy through the fixation of carbon dioxide into sugars utilizing the energy from sunlight.photosynthesis) had appeared by 3.7 billion years ago (17), leaving virtually no time for prebiotics to have evolved into the first life forms. discard evidence

New theories

New theories, such as assembly of biomolecules on mineral surfaces, are constantly being proposed to attempt to get around the problems associated with the spontaneous origin of life. However, even if you put purified chemicals together (which can't be synthesized Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to have played a role in the origin of life.prebiotically), you can get Larger molecules that are formed by the linkage of smaller, individual molecules.polymers only up to 50 An abbreviation for monomer, a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.mer (obviously not enough for life) (4). Therefore, none of these theories has been able to get around the fundamental chemical problems required for life to have begun on the Earth. Some quotes from evolutionists are cited below:

"It's a very long leap from [mineral] surface chemistry to a living cell." Norman Pace (evolutionary biologist, University of California, Berkeley). (18)

"On theoretical grounds, however, it [mineral clay synthesis] seems implausible. Structural irregularities in clay that were complicated enough to set the stage for the emergence of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA probably would not be amenable to accurate self-replication." (Leslie Orgel)

'There is now overwhelmingly strong evidence, both statistical and Relating to the earth science study of fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontological, that life could not have been started on Earth by a series of random chemical reactions.... There simply was not enough time... to get life going." Niles Eldridge (paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History). (19)

"There is no agreement on the extent to which metabolism could develop independently of a genetic material. In my opinion, there is no basis in known chemistry for the belief that long sequences of reactions can organize spontaneously -- and every reason to believe that they cannot. The problem of achieving sufficient specificity, whether in Consisting of or occurring within a water-based system.aqueous solution or on the surface of a mineral, is so severe that the chance of closing a cycle of reactions as complex as the reverse citric acid cycle, for example, is negligible." Leslie Orgel, 1998 (The Salk Institute for Biological Studies). (20)

Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).Prebiotic chemistry would produce a wealth of biomolecules from non living precursors. But the wealth soon became overwhelming, with the "Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic soups" having the chemical complexity of asphalt (useful, perhaps, for paving roads but not particularly promising as a wellspring for life). Classical Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic chemistry not only failed to constrain the contents of the Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic soup, but also raised a new paradox: How could life (or any organized chemical process) emerge from such a mess? Searches of quadrillions of randomly generated Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences have failed to yield a spontaneous Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA A biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replicator. Steven A. Benner, 1999 (professor of Chemistry at the University of Florida). (21)

Even origin of life researchers are now admitting that getting the basic building blocks for an Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA world is virtually impossible:

G. F. Joyce and L. E. Orgel lead us into the Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA world with a description of the difficulties in achieving the direct synthesis of The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleosides and Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides from Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic precursors and conclude that the de novo appearance of Short sequence of single-stranded DNA or RNA often used as probes for detecting complementary DNA or RNA.oligonucleotides on primitive Earth amounts to a "near miracle" W. Keller, 1999 (22).

pRNA

Researchers are now examining alternative, simpler possible genetic molecules, such as A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting a six carbon sugar for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.pyranosyl-RNAs (A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting a six carbon sugar for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.pRNAs) that pair up in double helices. However, it seems unlikely that these A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting a six carbon sugar for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.pRNAs could have been a source of genetic material in early life forms. Pairs of complementary A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting a six carbon sugar for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.pRNAs form double helices that are structurally very different from those formed by Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA and Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA. According to Leslie Orgel:

"Consequently, A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting a six carbon sugar for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.pRNAs and Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNAs are not able to form duplexes with each other, which would preclude exchange of information between these two molecules, suggesting that A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting a six carbon sugar for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.pRNAs are unlikely to have been the genetic material that preceded Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA." Leslie Orgel, 2000 (23)

TNA

Recently, researchers have synthesized A four carbon sugar containing one aldehyde group, which exists in both D and L stereoisomers.threose-based nucleic acid (Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA) as potential precursors of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA and Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA (since it is obvious that Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA and Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA could not form spontaneously on primitive earth). Researchers have found that complementary Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNAs form double helices among themselves and even with complementary Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNAs and Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNAs (24). How could a primitive organism that used Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA as its genetic material switch to Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA? There are two potential mechanisms, both of which suffer major, almost certainly fatal, problems. In one mechanism, a Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA-based primitive organism would have synthesized Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNAs for a purpose other than The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication, such as a means to inhibit Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA synthesis in a competing organism. Under such a scenario, Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication would have evolved independently of Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication and ultimately took over as the means by which cells reproduce themselves. However, since the two genetic systems never interacted no useful genetic information would have been transferred from Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA to Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA. It is unclear how the original Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication system could have been turned off, or the more important problem of how a complete Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA genetic system could have evolved in the absence of natural selection. In the alternative mechanism, Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases were at first substituted randomly a few at a time in Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences until the proportion of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA components increased over time from almost zero to 100%. The information present originally in the Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence was, at least in part, preserved in the final Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence. However, this theory suffers the major drawback that the introduction of a substantial number of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases at random would almost certainly destroy the catalytic function of any particular Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence (a fatal "A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation") in addition to probably preventing The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication of Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA, rendering evolved Threose-based nucleic acid: A molecule similar to RNA, but substituting the four carbon sugar threose for the five carbon sugar ribose, which is found in RNA.TNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences useless.

Hydrothermal vents

Undersea vents at geologically active locations on the sea floor have been cited as a possible source of energy bearing chemicals that could have provided the necessary conditions to foster the origin of life on earth. Accordingly, the A kingdom of single-celled microorganisms, similar to bacteria, having no cell nucleus or other organelles within their cells.Archaea present in modern day hydrothermal vents might represent descendants from these earliest life forms. However, new research shows that these A kingdom of single-celled microorganisms, similar to bacteria, having no cell nucleus or other organelles within their cells.Archaea probably originated from Organisms that grow best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold, typically between 15 and 40°C.mesophiles, adapting to a Related to the conditions (high temperatures, between 45 and 80°C) under which thermophiles live.thermophilic lifestyle (25). The extensive biochemical modifications necessary for such an adaptation, in addition to the genetic data, make it unlikely that A kingdom of single-celled microorganisms, similar to bacteria, having no cell nucleus or other organelles within their cells.Archaea could have originated at hydrothermal vents.

Conclusion Top of page

As can be seen from the above table and information, the atheist's position is becoming more extreme and less reasonable as more knowledge is gained through scientific studies. Atheists are becoming desperate and are now offering $1 million for an explanation that "corresponds to empirical biochemical and thermodynamic reality, and be published in a well-respected, peer-reviewed science journal(s)." In contrast, the revelation of creation from the Bible is being confirmed with the advancement of science.



Related Materials Top of page

Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face OffOrigins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off by Fazale Rana and Hugh Ross. Probably the single most potent scientific argument against atheism is the problem with a naturalistic origin of life. This very problem led me to become a deist as a biology major at USC in the early 1970's. The problems for atheists have gotten no better since that time. In fact, the last 30+ years of research have turned up even more problems than those that existed when I first studied the theories. Fuz Rana (a biochemist) and Hugh Ross (an astrophysicist) have teamed up to write the definitive up-to-date analysis of the origin of life. The book examines the origins of life from the perspectives of chemistry, biochemistry, astronomy, and the Bible. A biblical creation model is presented along side the naturalistic models to help the reader decide which one fits the data better. This is an excellent book to give to your unbelieving friends, since it presents a testable creation model that is clearly superior to any naturalistic model.


References Top of page

  1. Orgel, L. 1994. The origin of life on earth. Scientific American. 271 (4) p. 81. (Dr. Orgel is an atheist who has been working on origins of life research for over 30 years.)
  2. This argument has nothing to do with the closed/open system question. The Heat always flow from a hot object to a cold object. As a result, the entropy of the universe always increases until it eventually comes to equilibrium (no differential expression of heat).second law of thermodynamics states that heat flows from hot bodies to cold bodies. This law also affects the formation of Either of a pair of optical compounds whose molecular structures have a mirror-image relationship to each other.enantiomers in chemical reactions capable of producing One enantiomer (left or right-handed form) of an optically active compound.stereoisomers. Since the formation of both left- and right-handed Either of a pair of optical compounds whose molecular structures have a mirror-image relationship to each other.enantiomers requires the exact same amount of energy, both Either of a pair of optical compounds whose molecular structures have a mirror-image relationship to each other.enantiomers are produced in identical amounts. Any deviation from this result is highly unlikely (much less likely than the scenario of starting your car on a hot California day and having freeze over while running).
    Some researchers have cited the possibility of differential synthesis of one Either of a pair of optical compounds whose molecular structures have a mirror-image relationship to each other.enantiomer over another in the presence of circularly polarized light. There are a couple problems with this theory. First, there is no source of this kind of light in the vicinity of our solar system. Second, the demonstration of circularly polarized light was found only in the infrared region of the spectrum. Light must be of much more energetic wavelengths (ultraviolet). Third, if One enantiomer (left or right-handed form) of an optically active compound.stereoisomers were formed, the energy of the light would break them down within a short period of time.
  3. Orgel, L. 1994. The origin of life on earth. Scientific American. 271 (4) p. 82.
  4. 1997. MEETING BRIEFS: Primordial Soup Researchers Gather at Watering Hole. Science 277: 1034.
  5. Robertson, M.P. and W.G. Scott. 2007 The Structural Basis of Ribozyme-Catalyzed Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA Assembly. Science 315: 1549.
  6. Bortman, H. 2001. Life Under Bombardment from the NASA Astrobiology Institute. - Alternating layers of oxidized iron in the so-called banded iron formation from Akilia Island in West Greenland demonstrates that free oxygen has been present on earth longer than 3.85 billion years.
    Dimroth, E. and M. Kimberley. 1976. Precambrian atmospheric oxygen: Evidence in the sedimentary distributions of carbon, sulfur, uranium, and iron. Can. J. Earth Sci., 13:1161-1185.
    Carver, J. H. 1981. Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).Prebiotic atmospheric oxygen levels. Nature 292: 136-138.
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  8. Shapiro R. 1995. The Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic role of A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine: a critical analysis. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 25: 83-98.
  9. A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.Cytosine intermediates suffer the following problems:
    1. Synthesis based upon cyanoacetylene requires the presence of large amounts of methane and nitrogen, however, it is unlikely that significant amounts of methane were present at the time life originated.
    2. Synthesis based upon cyanate is problematical, since it requires concentrations in excess of 1 M (molar). When concentrations of 0.1 M (still unrealistically high) are used, no A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine is produced.
    3. Synthesis based upon cyanoacetaldehyde and urea suffers from the problem of The removal of the amino group from an amino acid or other amino compound.deamination of the A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine in the presence of high concentrations of urea (low concentrations produce no A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine). In addition, cyanoacetaldehyde is reactive with a number of Refers to the state of matter before life existed, which is hypothesized to play a role in the formation of life (the origin of life).prebiotic chemicals, so would never attain reasonable concentrations for the reaction to occur. Even without the presence of other chemicals, cyanoacetaldehyde has a half-life of only 31 years in water.
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