Recent Problems in Evolution - 1990

Table of Contents

Molecular clock does not tick for eukaryotic histone The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences

Evolutionists have proposed a hypothesis called the molecular clock hypothesis, which states that the rate of The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence drift for a An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein depends on the number of A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid residues that are critical for its function. It would seem likely that non-critical A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid residues should be substituted on a random basis through the eons of time. However, recent experiments have determined that core histone The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences are highly conserved among eukaryotes, even though large regions of the Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins are dispensable for growth in yeast. (Behe M.J. Histone deletion mutants challenge the molecular clock hypothesis. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 15 (10): 374-6, 1990.)

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Direct interaction between A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids and a prototypic adapter A short sequence of single-stranded DNA or RNA often used as probes for detecting complementary DNA or RNA.oligonucleotide is an impossible model for primitive An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteinsynthesis

The model for primitive An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein synthesis as proposed by F. Crick assumes a direct interaction between the A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid and a prototypic adapter A short sequence of single-stranded DNA or RNA often used as probes for detecting complementary DNA or RNA.oligonucleotide. Recent studies have shown this hypothesis to be irreconcilable with the large spatial separation between the aminoacylation site and the A sequence of three nucleotides in transfer RNA that binds to the complementary triplet (codon) in messenger RNA to specify an amino acid during protein synthesis.anticodon in present day transfer Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA's. (Moller W. and Janssen GM. Biochimie 72 (5): 361-8, 1990.)

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The evolution of maleness is unlikely according to Darwinian theory

Darwinian theory has yet to explain adequately the fact of sex. Males of most species provide little or no aid to offspring, and a high (up to 2-fold) extra average fitness has to emerge as a property of a sexual parentage if sex is to be stable. The advantage must presumably come from recombination but has not been identified. (Hamilton WD., Axelrod R. and Tanese R. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87 (9): 3566-73, 1990.)

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The origin of the mammalian One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome remains a mystery

The problems encountered for theories on the evolution of the An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primate and rodent One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y Chromosomes have lead to conflicting theories. Recent studies done at the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA level contradict the predominant theory for the evolution of the mammalian One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome. (Maxson SC. Behavior Genetics 20 (1): 109-26, 1990.)

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Parallel seasonal delayed implantation of fertilized eggs has evolved independently at least 17 times?

Seasonal delayed implantation of fertilized eggs has been described in 47 mammalian species in ten families. Current evolutionary theory would require that this response has evolved independently at least 17 times. This would seem to be very unlikely, especially since the trait seems to provide little or no survival benefit. (Sandell M. Quarterly Review of Biology 65 (1): 23-42, 1990.)

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Hormone-receptor co-evolution seems unlikely from the complex pathways.

The hormone-receptor development was probably a powerful formative force in the development of macroorganisms, and its baffling complexity can only begin to find an explanation on the basis of structure/function relationships of the encoding material and its products. (Schwabe C. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A-Comparative Physiology 97 (2): 101-6, 1990.)

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Lack of evolution of isozyme patterns of Jews separated for 2,000 years.

Theories of evolution state that the characteristic isozyme patterns found in different races are due to local environmental influences. However, Jews from diverse countries, and in spite of 2,000 years of separation from the Near East, retain the frequencies of isozymes of their Near Eastern origins. (Nevo E. Progress in Clinical & Biological Research 344: 701-42, 1990.)

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