Human Y Chromosome: "horrendously different" from Nearest Living "Relative"
by Rich Deem

Introduction

Stunning Genetic Data

Scientists recently completed Determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequencing the male-specific region of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome (MSY) for the Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee. Expecting to find it similar to that in humans, they were stunned to find differences of 30-50% - not what the evolutionary paradigm would have predicted.

Rich Deem

Human descent with modification (human evolution) is going to stand or fall on the results of genomic Determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequencing. The The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome was first released in 2000.1 Prior to that time, Determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequencing of individual Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes had indicated that humans and Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzees were about 98.5% identical. However, closer examination of the entire All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes revealed that the 1.4% differences in coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences were not reflected in the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to make a protein.non-coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences (originally called junk DNA), which differed by a much larger 3.4%, for a total difference of nearly 5%.2 Originally, it had been thought that coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences would provide the answer to the question of why humans are so different from their closest living ancestors. However, the last few years of research strongly suggest that the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to make a protein.non-coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences, which control how the Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes are expressed, makes us human. Although it was originally thought that 97% of human Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA was "junk," an analysis of a large amount of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome in 2007 revealed that the vast majority of the The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence was transcribed3 - a result that was completely unexpected.

The Y chromosome

The human (and most other mammalian species) One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome contains the sex-determining The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene SRY, which determines testes development. Evolutionary theory states that the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome evolved from the One of the two sex chromosomes, carried by males (1 copy) and females (2 copies) in mammals.X chromosome some 300-160 million years ago, primarily during the evolution of mammals. Since that time, the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome has been losing Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes, until it now contains only ~86 Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes (compared with ~2,000 for the One of the two sex chromosomes, carried by males (1 copy) and females (2 copies) in mammals.X chromosome). Much of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome consists of palindromes of The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences. Fertilization of an egg with an x-sperm produces a female, whereas fertilization of an egg with an y-sperm produces a male. Unlike Referring to any chromosome other than a sex chromosome. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.autosomal Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes, the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome does not recombine with its One of the two sex chromosomes, carried by males (1 copy) and females (2 copies) in mammals.X chromosome partner, except under rare circumstances, and mostly near the A region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which is involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomere.

Y chromosome differences

The surprising finding of the Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence is that it contains only two-thirds the number of Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes compared with the human One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome.4 Fully 30% of the human One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome contains no analogous region on the Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee counterpart. In addition, the Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome contains less than half the protein-coding Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes of the human counterpart, even though it contains twice as many massive palindromes as the human. Even the parts of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y Chromosomes that are analogous are arrange in a completely different manner.4 

Reactions to the study

Scientists have been rather surprised at the differences seen between the human and Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome. Christine Disteche (University of Washington) said, "It's expected that they are going to be more different than the rest of the All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome, but the extent of it is pretty amazing."5 According to the authors of the study, "Indeed, at 6 million years of separation, the difference in MSY The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene content in Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee and human is more comparable to the difference in Referring to any chromosome other than a sex chromosome. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.autosomal The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene content in chicken and human, at 310 million years of separation."4 David Page (program leader at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research) said, "It looks like there's been a dramatic renovation or reinvention of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome in the Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee and human lineages."5 He also called the Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes, "horrendously different from each other."5 The only thing that makes the difference "horrendous" is the fact that it doesn't fit the evolutionary paradigm.

Conclusion Top of page

Although previous genetic studies had suggested that human- Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee differences were greater than first thought, the latest Determining the order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequencing data is a bombshell. The human One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome is dramatically different from that of our "nearest living relative," the Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee - up to 50% different. The The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence is so different, that if it had occurred in an Referring to any chromosome other than a sex chromosome. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.autosomal One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome, such a change would represent that seen between chickens and humans over a period of 310 million years. Described as being "horrendously different," the The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence change is virtually unexplainable over the 6-7 million years between the hypothesized chimp-human split.



Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of ManWho Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man. Are humans just advanced apes or have they been specially created in the image of God? Publications by scientists almost never ask the question, whereas publications by theists seldom examine the scientific data that relates to the question. However, two scientists raised in non-Christian homes, Fuz Rana (Ph.D. in chemistry) and Hugh Ross (Ph.D. in astronomy), have written a new book (Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man) that examines the question of human origins by comparing biblical and evolutionary models.


References Top of page

  1. Completion of the First Survey of the Entire Human Genome (June 26, 2000).
  2. Britten, R.J. 2002. Divergence between samples of Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzee and human is 5%, counting indels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 13633-16335.
  3. The ENCODE Project Consortium. 2007. Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature 447: 799-816.
  4. Hughes, J.F. et al. 2010. Chimpanzee and human Y Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene content. Nature doi:10.1038/nature08700.
  5.  Buchen, L. 2010. The fickle One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome. Nature doi:10.1038/463149a.

http://godandscience.org/evolution/human_y_chromosome.html
Last Modified January 17, 2010

 

Rich's Blog