"Junk" DNA: Why non-coding DNA Isn't Really Junk1
by Rich Deem

Introduction

Is there any "junk"?

The first systematic analysis of a significant portion of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome was published in June, 2007 (see below). The analysis attempted to determine the function of entire regions of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. The results showed that, although only a small amount of the All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome codes for An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein, most of the rest is still transcribed into Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA, which functions in ways not described before. As more is learned about the structure of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome, it is apparent that most (if not all) of the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding regions of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA are required for the proper functioning of the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA.

Rich Deem

The existence of large amounts of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms."junk" DNA (up to 97% in humans) in the All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes of The classification of living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotes has been used as an argument against intelligent design (and the role of a Creator) and as an argument for the random process of evolution. Two evolutionary theories attempted to explain the reason for the existence of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. One theory stated that DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA was "junk" that consisted of randomly-produced The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences that had lost their coding ability or partially duplicated Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes that were non-functional. The second theory stated that DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA was "selfish", in that it consisted of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA that preferentially replicated more efficiently that coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, even though it provided no selective advantage (in fact was somewhat detrimental since it was parasitic). There have always been problems with these arguments, which have been ignored by many of those making these claims. The main question presented by proponents of the "junk" or "selfish" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA theories is, "Why would a perfect God create flawed Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA which is primarily composed of useless, DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding regions?" The definitive answer has finally arrived, although for many years there have been strong suggestions of what the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is doing in our All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes.

Too uniform and patterned

The Myth of Junk DNAThe answers to the question of "junk" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA have been coming in for years, and we now know that the "junk" is not really junk. Since "junk" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is not really junk, from now on I will call it " DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. Let's first look at some of the early studies which indicated that there was some design behind the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. Initial and subsequent studies showed there were long areas of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA which contained A sequence of bases that has the property of reading the same in either direction.palindromes, thus maintaining symmetry between complementary strands (2). Other studies, examining large regions of All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes, using statistical techniques borrowed from linguistics, have shown patterns in the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA similar to that seen in human languages (3). For example, when you take human language texts and create a histogram plotting the log of the frequency of occurrence of words against the log of the rank, the resulting plot is always linear with a slope of -1 for every human language. Likewise, when you perform the same plot for coding and DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, the plot for the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA exhibits a nearly perfect linear relationship (much better than that seen for the coding regions of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA). The purpose or function of this " Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA language" was not determined. Another study showed that Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA contains large areas with unexplained patterns (4). Such patterns could not be the result of random chance as stated by Dr. H. Eugene Stanley (Boston University), "it is almost incredible that the occupant of one site on a The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene would somehow influence which One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide shows up even 100,000 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases away."

Patterns in TIREs

Scientists have noticed for some time that Referring to living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotic All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes consist of large amounts of transposable and interspersed repetitive elements (TIREs). A study of insect TIREs showed that the An order of insect that includes moths and butterflies.Lepidopteran Bombyx mori (the silkmoth) exhibits the short interspersion pattern in which Alu-like TIREs predominate while The genus (scientific) name for small fruit flies, famous for being used in the study of genetics.Drosophila possesses the long interspersion pattern in which Referring to a type of virus that contains RNA as its genetic material. The RNA of the virus is translated into DNA, which inserts itself into an infected cell's own DNAretroviral-like TIREs are prevalent. An analysis of these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences revealed highly non-random patterns of TIREs in both The genus of true silkmoths or mulberry silkmoths, moths of the family Bombycidae.Bombyx and The genus (scientific) name for small fruit flies, famous for being used in the study of genetics.Drosophila. These patterns suggested that these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences were under cellular regulation rather than useless or selfish junk Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA (5).

Patterns in Major histocompatibility complex: the receptors and markers that control aspects of the immune response.MHC

Later studies showed that simple, repetitive (gt)n(ga)m Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequencesare present in The receptors and markers that control aspects of the immune response.major histocompatibility complex MHC-DRB Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes for many distantly related animals, such as An order of mammals comprised of even-toed ungulates, including pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, chevrotains (mouse deers), deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelopes, sheep, goats, and cattle.Artiodactyla (large hoofed mammals) and man. Obviously, if these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences were truly junk, they would not be expected to have been preserved through millions of years of evolution. Gel retardation experiments revealed that these simple repetitive (gt)n(ga)m The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences bind Related to the cell's nucleus, a membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nuclear Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins and show characteristics of a specific Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA-An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein interaction (6). What functions these Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA-An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein interactions exhibit has not been determined. However, there are many other examples of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA-An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein interaction which exhibit regulatory control of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription.

Species to species similarities (conserved "junk")

Other studies have demonstrated the remarkable similarity of The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence homology in the A cell surface marker characteristic of a special class of lymphocytes, found in the blood and lymphoid tissues, that produce cytokines or interact with other immune cells to facilitate immune responsiveness.T-cell receptor Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes of mice and humans. Scientists compared the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence of nearly 100 1,000 pairs of nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.kilobases of contiguous Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA in the C delta to C alpha region of the alpha/delta A cell surface marker characteristic of a special class of lymphocytes, found in the blood and lymphoid tissues, that produce cytokines or interact with other immune cells to facilitate immune responsiveness.T-cell receptor Multiple places on a chromosome where specific genes or genetic markers are located, a kind of address for the gene.loci (TCRAC/TCRDC) of mice and human beings. This analysis, the largest genomic The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence comparison so far, identified a very high level of organizational and DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence similarity (approximately 71%). The authors conclude, "This observation begins to question the notion that much of the Relating to one of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomal DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence is junk (7)."

Chromosomal structure

More definitive studies have shown that DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA provides structure to Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA so that it can perform many functions which would be impossible without some form of structure. One of the readily apparent differences between prokaryotic and Referring to living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotic Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is that Referring to living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotic Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is organized into Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes, which is further organized into The complex of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes.chromatin code. This kind of structure does not "just happen" for Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA - it requires specific design. The coding regions of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA are concentrated in the Relating to one of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomal regions which are the richest in G (A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.guanine) and C (A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine) and seem to correspond to the Related to a region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which is involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomeric regions of certain One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome arms (T-bands) (8). Scientists have genetically modified and therefore removed a single A region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which is involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomere of one One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome in yeast cells (9). The elimination of the A region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which is involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomere caused cell cycle arrest (stopping of cell division), indicating that Regions of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which are involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomeres help cells to distinguish intact Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes from damaged Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. In the cells that recovered from the arrest the One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome was eventually lost, demonstrating that Regions of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which are involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomeres are essential for maintaining One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome stability. Therefore, DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is absolutely necessary for Relating to one of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomal structure and function. Studies published in February, 1997, show that organisms produce special Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins that bind to the Regions of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which are involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomeres during Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication (10). These Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins are counted in order to determine how long the Related to a region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which is involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomeric Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA should be, otherwise the A region of repetitive DNA at the end of chromosomes, which is involved in replication and protects the end of the chromosome from destruction.telomere would be shortened with each The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication, eventually resulting in loss of critical Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes.

cell divisionAs you learned in high school, the Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes are replicated and segregated during mitosis (cell division). Complex interactions occur between the The constricted region near the center of a human chromosome. This is the region of the chromosome where the two sister chromatids are joined to one another.centromeres of Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes and the spindles to which they attach. These (11). What you may not have learned is that the The phase of mitosis, or cell division, when the chromosomes align along the center of the cell.metaphase Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes are dynamically modified in The stage in the life cycle of a cell between two successive mitotic or meiotic divisions.interphase. In The stage in the life cycle of a cell between two successive mitotic or meiotic divisions.interphase Membrane-enclosed organelles found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nuclei, orderly The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription and The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication involve highly folded Relating to one of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomal domains containing hundreds of 1,000 pairs of nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.kilobases of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. Specific DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences within selected One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome domains participate in more complex levels of One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome folding, and index different genetic compartments for orderly The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription and The process by which a biomolecule or molecular machine that produces a copy of an information-carrying molecule.replication. There is also evidence that three-dimensional One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome positions within the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus contribute to Related to the observable traits or characteristics of an organism, for example hair color, weight, or the presence or absence of a disease.phenotypic expression. Entire Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes are maintained as discrete, reasonably compact entities in the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus, and Related to the tightly packed form of DNA chromatin.heterochromatic coiled domains of several thousand 1,000 pairs of nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.kilobases can acquire unique three-dimensional positions in A cell or tissue that has taken on a specialized form and function. Once differentiated, the cell or tissue is usually committed to its particular function and cannot undifferentiate.differentiated cell types. This unique structure controls the expression of specific Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genesin cells of A cell or tissue that has taken on a specialized form and function. Once differentiated, the cell or tissue is usually committed to its particular function and cannot undifferentiate.differentiated cell types (12). Therefore, DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNAis essential for differential The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene expression seen in the A cell or tissue that has taken on a specialized form and function. Once differentiated, the cell or tissue is usually committed to its particular function and cannot undifferentiate.differentiated cell types seen throughout Referring to living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotic organisms.

Recent advances have demonstrated that non-An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA provides the structural basis of the The phase of mitosis, or cell division, when the chromosomes align along the center of the cell.metaphase Relating to one of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomal banding pattern. Genome sequences of greater than 200 base pairs that have high G+C content.CpG islands, Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA loops, and matrix attachment sites form the basis of G versus R banding patterns, revealing how DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA forms the basis of Relating to one of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomal structure (13).

Role in DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA in Related to the cell's nucleus, a membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nuclear structure

Crytomonad - flagellated single-celled photosynthetic organism
Crytomonad - flagellated single-celled
photosynthetic organism

Another study has shown that Referring to living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotic DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA (also called "secondary Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA) is functional as a structural element in the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus. The new study examined the All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes of the single-celled Relating to the process of photosynthesis, a metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy through the fixation of carbon dioxide into sugars utilizing the energy from sunlight.photosynthetic organisms know as Crytomonads. These organisms exist as vastly different cell sizes, with the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus being proportional in size to that of the cell. Researchers discovered that the amount of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA was proportional to the size of the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus, suggesting that more DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA was structurally required in larger Membrane-enclosed organelles found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nuclei. As an added proof, the nucleomorph, a small piece of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA contained within the A membrane-bound organelle involved in photosynthesis.plastid that codes for itself and Relating to the process of photosynthesis, a metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy through the fixation of carbon dioxide into sugars utilizing the energy from sunlight.photosynthetic function, was not changed in size, despite changes in cell size and Related to the cell's nucleus, a membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nuclear content. The new study is a stunning rebuttal to the evolutionary theories that attempt to discredit design and promote concepts such as "junk" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA and "selfish" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. The conclusion according to the authors is quoted below:

"Furthermore, the present lack of significant amounts of nucleomorph secondary Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA confirms that selection can readily eliminate functionless Related to the cell's nucleus, a membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nuclear Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, refuting 'selfish' and 'junk' theories of secondary Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA" (see Beaton, M.J. and T. Cavalier-Smith. 1999. Eukaryotic DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is functional: evidence from the differential scaling of cryptomonal All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes." (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 266:2053-2059.)

Repetitive stretches of short sequences of DNA used as genetic markers to track inheritance in families.Microsatellites

Another study, examining a 2.84 Mb section of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome, showed that Repetitive stretches of short sequences of DNA used as genetic markers to track inheritance in families.Y microsatellites, tandem repeat The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences abundant in the All the DNA contained within species of organisms, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genomes of higher The classification of living organisms that are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus in which the DNA is housed.eukaryotes, contain reiterating A-rich Multiple places on a chromosome where specific genes or genetic markers are located, a kind of address for the gene.loci, which are involved in the higher-order organization of the The complex of DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes.chromatin (14). Other studies have shown satellites consisting of about 1 million copies of a 221-bp tandem repeat unit has been localized in the The constricted region near the center of a human chromosome. This is the region of the chromosome where the two sister chromatids are joined to one another.centromeres of 58 of the 64 horse Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes (15). Many hundreds of studies have implicated Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations in satellites, Regions of DNA in which repeat units of 6�100 base pairs are arranged in tandem arrays that are 500�30,000 bases in lengthminisatellites, and Repetitive stretches of short sequences of DNA used as genetic markers to track inheritance in families.Y microsatellites, in diseases which show genetic The association of genes and/or markers that lie near each other on a chromosome that tend to be inherited together.linkage, including studies on Crohn's disease, of which I have been part of.

Regulation of coding The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene expression

It appears that A tightly packed form of DNA chromatin.heterochromatin, composed of what was once thought to be junk Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, may have some role in suppression of The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene(s) and/or spreading of inactivation, if Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes are embedded within the Related to the tightly packed form of DNA chromatin.heterochromatic region (16). In a recent study, investigators examined, through genetic engineering, the relationship between The region of a gene that contains the code for producing a specific portion of a gene's protein.exon (An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA) and A noncoding sequence of DNA that is initially copied into RNA but is cut out of the final RNA transcript.intron ( DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA) size in pre- Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA (messenger Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA, from which An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation is accomplished) processing. The regions of a gene that contain the code for producing a specific portion of a gene's protein.Exons were placed in vertebrate Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes along with small and large Noncoding sequences of DNA that are initially copied into RNA but are cut out of the final RNA transcript.introns. Both The region of a gene that contains the code for producing a specific portion of a gene's protein.exon and A noncoding sequence of DNA that is initially copied into RNA but is cut out of the final RNA transcript.intron size influenced splicing The observable traits or characteristics of an organism, for example hair color, weight, or the presence or absence of a disease.phenotype, such that when Noncoding sequences of DNA that are initially copied into RNA but are cut out of the final RNA transcript.introns were large, large The regions of a gene that contain the code for producing a specific portion of a gene's protein.exons were skipped; when Noncoding sequences of DNA that are initially copied into RNA but are cut out of the final RNA transcript.introns were small, the same large The regions of a gene that contain the code for producing a specific portion of a gene's protein.exons were included. These results indicated that DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Noncoding sequences of DNA that are initially copied into RNA but are cut out of the final RNA transcript.introns can control the recognition and The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription of The regions of a gene that contain the code for producing a specific portion of a gene's protein.exons ( An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA) (17). In addition, Noncoding sequences of DNA that are initially copied into RNA but are cut out of the final RNA transcript.introns encoded within transfer Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA ( A small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis.tRNA) Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes, which recognize the The set 64 possible nucleotide triplets (codons) by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells.genetic code on Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA, code for their splicing, which allow them to recognize A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids during the An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation process (18).

There is growing evidence that DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA plays a vital role in the regulation of The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene expression during development (19). These studies demonstrate that DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA regulates development of photoreceptor cells (20), the reproductive tract (21), and the central nervous system (22). Therefore, DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA regulates the vital roles of development and embriogenesis.

Some of the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA provides proper framing for The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation of Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. The Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is, of course, a triplet code, with each triplet coding for the placement of one A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid. In order to be read properly, the reading frame must be properly established. If the reading frame were shifted by one or two positions in either direction, the resulting An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein would be completely different and would be "junk" An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein. Therefore, the The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation framing code is responsible for correct triplet counting by the Complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosome during An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein synthesis (23).

A recent study has shown that Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes (as many as five at a time) are found within the Noncoding sequences of DNA that are initially copied into RNA but are cut out of the final RNA transcript.introns of other Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes (24). This kind of arrangement results in the simultaneous expression of all of these Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes during The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription of the The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene in question. Such regulatory control is rather remarkable, suggesting intelligent designed as opposed to random chance. Some of the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is loop code for single-stranded Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA- An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein interactions. The codes are degenerate and corresponding messages are not only interspersed but actually overlap, so that some Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides belong to several messages simultaneously. Tandemly repeated The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequencesfrequently considered as functionless "junk" are found to be grouped into certain classes of repeat unit lengths, indicating functional involvement of these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences. It is likely these tandem repeats play the role of weak enhancer-silencers that modulate, in a copy number-dependent way, the expression of proximal Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes.

Well over 700 studies (over 100 in the last year) have demonstrated the role of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA as enhancers for The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription of proximal Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes. These A noncoding sequence of DNA that is initially copied into RNA but is cut out of the final RNA transcript.intronic enhancers have been described for eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein (ECP) (25), the variable region of the rearranged immunoglobulin mu (IgM) The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (26), the alpha-globin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (27), the activin beta A subunit The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (28), lambda 2 light chain transgenes (29), Human CYP1B1, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily (30), immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) (31), alcohol dehydrogenase (32), 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (33), apolipoprotein A-II (34), beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (35), kappa light chain The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (36), Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (37), the A cell surface marker characteristic of a special class of lymphocytes, found in the blood and lymphoid tissues, that produce cytokines or interact with other immune cells to facilitate immune responsiveness.T-cell receptor beta-chain (38), 2-crystallin (39), 1 tubulin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (40), aldolase B The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (41), and many others.

Another 60+ studies have demonstrated the role of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA as silencers for suppression of The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription of proximal Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes. The presence of silencer Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes has been shown to down-regulate the apolipoprotein A-II The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (42), the osteocalcin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (43), the 2-crystallin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (44), the CD4 The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (45), the beta globin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (46), the The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene for the neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule, Ng-CAM (47), the renin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (48), the keratin 18 The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (49), the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (50), and dozens of other Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes.

In addition, there are 3' and 5' untranslated regions (UTR) which regulate The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation of Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. Certain trans-acting binding Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins bind to the 3' and 5' UTRs of proximal and distal Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes to regulate their The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation. This DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA has been shown to regulate the Lipoprotein Lipase The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (51), the glucose transporter The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (52), coxsackie B3 virus (53), the bax-alpha The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (54), glutathione peroxidase and phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes (55), the FMR1 The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (56), the c-mos The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (57), the luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptor The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (58), the thyrotropin receptor The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (59), the beta-globin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (60), the interleukin 1 type I receptor The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (61), the The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation initiation factor eIF-2 alpha The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (62), the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2A subunit The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (63), and the catalase The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (64). In addition, 3'UTRs have been shown to down-regulate The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation of maternal Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA in oocytes (65), therefore playing a role in embriogenesis and development. Another role for the 3' and 5' UTR is to regulate the rate of Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA decay, which has now been shown to be a precise process dependent on a variety of specific cis-acting The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences and trans-acting factors (66).

Sequence of DNA that are very similar to normal genes but that has been altered so they are not expressed.Pseudogenes

The last example of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA to be rescued from the "junk" category are the Sequence of DNA that are very similar to normal genes but that has been altered so they are not expressed.pseudogenes. Sequence of DNA that are very similar to normal genes but that has been altered so they are not expressed.Pseudogenes are regions of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA that has been apparently duplicated from functional Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes. Until 2003, no function had ever been found for any A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene. However, the first functional role for a A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene was found through a study that was not even designed to study Sequence of DNA that are very similar to normal genes but that has been altered so they are not expressed.pseudogenes (67). This study was looking at expression of a fruit fly The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene that was being inserted into the Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes of laboratory mice. The investigators produced several lines of mice by inserting the fruit fly The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene randomly into the mouse Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. However, just one line of the genetically-altered mice was found to have multi-organ failure in at least 80% of the individuals. Instead of discarding the aberrant line, the scientists probed to find out why the A type of chromosomal abnormality in which a DNA sequence is inserted into a gene, disrupting the normal structure and function of that gene.insertion was lethal. What they found is that the fruit fly The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene had been inserted into the middle of a A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence called Makorin1-p1. The scientists found that this A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene produced an Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA product that regulated the expression of the functional Makorin1 The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene. Not only was the A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene functional, but its destruction resulted in a lethal mutation in the mice. Scientists had found the first required A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene.

The abstract from a commentary in issue of Nature in which the study was published indicated:

"' Sequence of DNA that are very similar to normal genes but that has been altered so they are not expressed.Pseudogenes' are produced from functional Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes during evolution, and are thought to be simply molecular fossils. The unexpected discovery of a biological function for one A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a normal gene but that has been altered so it is not expressed.pseudogene challenges that popular belief." (68)

Mammalian Conserved Non-Genic Sequences (CNGs)

A study of 191 DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences of human One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome 21 revealed that they were more identical among 14 mammalian species than Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA that codes for Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins (69). The data suggested that these regions serve some vital function among diverse mammalian species.

Referring to a type of virus that contains RNA as its genetic material. The RNA of the virus is translated into DNA, which inserts itself into an infected cell's own DNARetroviral components in human Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA

It was assumed that Referring to a type of virus that contains RNA as its genetic material. The RNA of the virus is translated into DNA, which inserts itself into an infected cell's own DNAretroviral The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences in human Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA represented leftover Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes from infection of Viruses that contains RNA as their genetic material. The RNA of these viruses are translated into DNA, which inserts itself into an infected cell's own DNA.retroviruses. However, a new study demonstrates that these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences actually block the infection of human cells with certain Viruses that contains RNA as their genetic material. The RNA of these viruses are translated into DNA, which inserts itself into an infected cell's own DNA.retroviruses (70). So, now these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences seem to posses a vital function.

Identical DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding regions in diverse vertebrate groups

Recent completion of All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome sequencing for many diverse vertebrates has revealed long The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences (at least 200 bp) of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA that are identical or nearly identical. Between humans and mice, 481 of these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences are 100% identical (71). Between humans and dogs, the The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences are 99% identical. Even between humans and chickens, the The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences are 95% identical. These The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences are found on all humans Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes except 21 and Y. The probability is less than one chance in 1022 of finding even one such The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence in 2.9 billion Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases under a simple model of neutral evolution with independent Replacement of one nucleotide in a DNA sequence by another nucleotide or replacement of one amino acid in a protein by another amino acid.substitutions at each site. Among numerous human individuals, there is almost no The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence variation (only 6 out of over 100,000 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases). The highly unlikely existence of these identical The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences indicate that they must absolutely required for survival, since the natural A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rate in humans would have been expected to produce at least 20 times more variation than what is observed.

Transposons

Transposons are DNA elements that can jump from one location to another within the genome. Originally thought to be non-functional elements, recent studies have shown that they do possess funtion. The bacterium, Neisseria meningitidis contains transposons representing up to 2% of the genome. Studies have shown that some of these elements can act as promoters for adjacent genes. In this way, they function to control transcription of those genes.

Genome-wide analysis

In a remarkable pilot study published by the ENCODE Project Consortium, hundreds of scientists analyzed the functionality of 1 percent (30 Mb) of the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome (72). Much to scientists' surprise, the study found that the majority of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA in the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome is transcribed into functional Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA. Even more surprising was the finding that these RNA products produced from the DNA sequence of a gene by the action of the enzyme RNA polymerase.transcripts extensively overlap one another (including regions on the opposite "anti-sense" strand of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA), suggesting that there exists some complicated interactions among neighboring regions of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. According to a news release from the Consortium, "This broad pattern of The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription challenges the long-standing view that the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome consists of a relatively small set of discrete Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes, along with a vast amount of so-called junk Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA that is not biologically active." (73).

Conclusion Top of page

The roles of DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA are so numerous and pervasive that evolutionary studies are now looking at these The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences for patterns of "concerted evolution (74)." In summary, the DNA that does not carry the information necessary to code for a protein.non-coding Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, contrary to statements by evolutionists, is not useless, but is, in fact, required for genomic functionality, therefore actually providing evidence of intelligent design. The "junk" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is really some rather amazing "junk."


Related Pages Top of page


Creation As Science: A Testable Model 
	Approach to End the Creation/evolution WarsReasons To Believe's third in a series of books proposing a testable creation model takes on the origin and design of the universe. Previous books, Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off and Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man, examined the origin of life on earth and the origin of mankind, respectively. Creation As Science develops a biblical creation model and compares the predictions of this model compared to a naturalistic model, young earth creationism, and theistic evolution. This biblical creation model is divided into four main areas, the origin of the universe, the origin of the Solar System, the history of life on earth, and the origin and history of mankind.

The Edge of evolutionThe Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism by Michael Behe

Darwin's Black Box author Michael Behe takes on the limits of evolution through an examination of specific genetic examples. Behe finds that mutation and natural selection is capable of generating trivial examples of evolutionary change. Although he concludes that descent with modification has occurred throughout biological history, the molecular devices found throughout nature cannot be accounted for through natural selection and mutation. Behe's book claims to develop a framework for testing intelligent design by defining the principles by which Darwinian evolution can be distinguished from design.


References Top of page

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