One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y Chromosome Data

Study Total
Base
Pairs 
95% CI Mean Est.
Pop.
Size
Lower  Upper
Dorit,
et al.
27,702  0 800,000  270,000  7,500
Hammer 39,000  51,000  411,000 188,000 5,000
Whitfield,
et al.
91,500  37,000 49,000 43,000 N/A
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Slide 31 of 109


In 1995, scientists have examined human origins from the perspective of male genetics (1, 2). Scientists have examined a The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (ZFY), which being on the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome, is passed down only from father to son. Thirty-eight men were chosen from all over the world (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and Northern, Central, and South America). Scientists determined the actual genetic The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence in each man for this The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene, which is 729 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs long. To their surprise, all men had identical genetic The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences(over 27,000 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs analyzed). Scientists have calculated the most probable date for the last common ancestor of modern man, given the The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence diversity from modern apes. Using two different models this date is either 270,000 or 27,000 years ago. However, both these models assume that the male population during this entire period of time consisted of only 7,500 individuals. The date estimates from these models would be significantly reduced if the male population were higher than 7,500, which is very likely. Two separate studies using similar techniques looked at larger pieces of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome, which would reduce the uncertainty in the calculation of dates. One study examined a The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene which was 2,600 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs and determined a last common ancestor date of 188,000 year ago (minimum of 51,000 and maximum of 411,000 years ago) (3). The other study used a very large piece of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome (18,300 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs) and calculated a last common ancestor date of modern man of 43,000 years ago (minimum of 37,000 and maximum of 49,000 years ago) (4).


Definitions

CI (Confidence Interval)
A statistical measure of the certainty of a value. 95% CI means that there is a 95% probability that the true result lies between the CI values.

References Top of page

  1. S. Paabo. 1995. The One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome and the origin of all of us (men). Science 268: 1141.

  2. R.L. Dorit, H. Akashi, W. Gilbert. 1995. Absence of A common variation in the sequence of DNA among individuals of a species or race.polymorphism at the ZFY The place on a chromosome where a specific gene is located, a kind of address for the gene.locus on the human One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome. Science 268: 1183.

  3. Hammer, M.F. 1995. A recent common ancestry for human Y chromosomes. Nature 378: 376-378.

  4. Whitfield, L.S., J.E. Suston, and P.N. Goodfellow. 1995. Sequence variation of the human One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome. Nature 378: 379-380.

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