Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA 101

Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA language:

  • 4 “letters” in the alphabet

    • A – A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.Adenine T – A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.Thymine
      C – A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.Cytosine G – Guanine

  • 20 3-letter “words” ( Sequences of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codons)

    • Each A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codon codes for one A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid

  • Unlimited number of “chapters” ( Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins)

  • Unlimited number of “novels” (organism)

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Slide 56 of 109


DNA has been described as a language, since it encodes massive amounts of information. The language consists of only four letters (called " Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs" or "bases" - A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine, A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.guanine, A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.thymine, or A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine) that are bound to a phosphorylated sugar - deoxyribose. The bases (or letters) are organized into 64 "words" or Sequences of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codons that specify a particular A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid. However, the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA code is redundant in that some similar codons code for the same A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids. In addition, some Sequences of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codons code for no amino acids at all, but indicate where the code begins or ends. Ultimately, the 64 Sequences of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codons code for 20 A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids. The A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codons are organized into "chapters" or Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes that code for Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. Since the Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes are of different lengths, there are a virtually unlimited number of possible Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins that can be produced. The Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes ultimately make up all the information that is required to complete the "novel," which is the organism for which it codes. The human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome (entire genetic code) consists of 3 billion bases (or letters) and approximately 30,000 Functional and physical units of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.genes.

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Last Modified June 21, 2006

 

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