A Scientific and Biblical Response to "Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human"
(Time, August 23, 1999)
By
Fazale R. Rana, Ph.D.
Richard Deem, M. S.
Hugh Ross, Ph.D.
Reasons To Believe
Pasadena, CA 91117

Introduction

The recent decision of the Kansas State School Board to no longer include questions about biological, stellar and cosmic evolution (including the big bang) in statewide student evaluation testing is being viewed by many to eventually result in the elimination of biological evolution from the state's science curriculum.1-4 Unfortunately, it will likely lead to a reduction of quality science education in general. In response to this development, Time magazine, in its August 23, 1999 issue, ran, as its cover story, a piece on "amazing new discoveries" that add to the already "convincing" evidence that human beings evolved from an ape-like ancestor over the course of the last 4 to 6 million years.5 The article's opening tone is condescending to "creationists and their intellectual allies." The writers of this piece would have the readers believe that it is all but a foregone conclusion from the scientific evidence that man is nothing more than the latest ape to be 'served up on the evolutionary palette.' In support of this, the authors of the piece site four recently discovered A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid 'species' to support this assertion. However, we find this piece to be unbalanced. The importance and the general response of Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists to these newly identified species are exaggerated by the authors of the Time article. Moreover, several recent important discoveries that create problems for the evolutionary paradigm of man's origins are not even mentioned. This leads to the questions, "does the scientific evidence really provide wholesale support for human evolution?" "Is the creationist view of man's origin really anti-scientific and anti-intellectual?"

At Reasons To Believe, we maintain that the facts and record of nature and the Bible are not complementary forms of truth that never overlap, as Stephen Jay Gould asserts6, but rather, are in complete harmony and are, in actuality, integrated forms of truth. If God, the Creator, is responsible for the words of the Bible then nature's record, as correctly interpreted through scientific study, should never disagree with the words of the Bible, as correctly interpreted through theological study. In fact, the Christian view is that God has revealed Himself to man not only through special revelation, but also through His creation.7 If there is a disagreement between science and theology, it is due to a faulty interpretation from either one or both accounts. If after careful re-examination of both interpretations, the scientific record and the Bible do not agree, it would be fair to conclude that the Bible is not true. However, if after careful re-examination of both interpretations, the Bible is found to be true, our only rational response is to embrace its message and accept Jesus Christ as our Savior and acknowledge Him as having control over our lives.

The Bible invites its readers to put it to the test.8 It is in this context that we will examine the A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primate fossil record (or what secular Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists call the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record), and most recent biochemical studies concerning modern man's origin. In doing so, we will openly put the Bible to the test. Likewise, we will put the evolutionary paradigm, with respect to man's origins, to the test. We agree with the editors of Nature magazine, that the interrogation of nature using the scientific method will help settle the creation-evolution controversy.9 Likewise, we believe that continued interrogation of Scripture using proper exegetical methodology will go far in settling this debate. Contrary to the opinion of the editors of Nature, we do not regard the doctrine of divine creation as dogmatic, but consider it to be a rational conclusion that results from examination of the scientific evidence. Divine creation is supported by the scientific evidence, and will continue to find support from on-going scientific discoveries and advances. We maintain that a proper reading of the Bible text of Genesis 1:26-27, and an objective, non-theory-laden view of the scientific evidence are in complete agreement, thereby providing strong support for the validity of the biblical view of man's beginnings. Likewise, we question whether a natural evolutionary interpretation of the data pertaining to man's origins finds similar support. As we will demonstrate, the creationist view of man's origins is scientifically justified, and in no way threatens the integrity of science education.

Philosophical Considerations

It is odd that adherents to biological evolutionary theory continue to assert that natural process evolution is a fact. We define this form of evolution to mean macroevolutionary changes in the biological realm in which one species gives rise to another distinct species. We do not define evolution simply as any natural change, which would define evolution as a fact. We want to avoid the intellectual slight of hand that is used time and time again, in which all agree that change is a fact of nature, and from this point wind up at the conclusion that biological macroevolutionary change independent of supernatural intervention is a fact.10 The insistence that evolution is a fact is contrary to the very nature of science. Theories are always subjected to on-going scrutiny and testing regardless of how successful and widely regarded they are. Although we accept a given theory as the best of all possible explanations, and use it as a framework to interpret our results, we are continually evaluating its validity. If not for this approach, quantum mechanics and relativity would never have been born. Rather, we still would be declaring Newtonian mechanics to be a fact - the theory being how to get certain observations to fit within its tenants.

In the case of cosmology, we have the ideal model of how this process works with respect to origins research. Throughout the last century, there have been many ideas proposed for the origin of the universe with each model gaining popularity in its time only to be discarded as new observational and theoretical evidence emerged. The big bang has not declared to be a fact, with subsequent theories being designed to demonstrate how it occurred. The big bang has emerged as the model for the universe's beginning through arduous testing with the oscillating universe and steady state theories (and others) falling by the way side.11 Furthermore, the big bang model has gained wide-scale acceptance in spite of its clear theological implications. These theological implications are prompting some workers to come up with alternatives to the big bang. The big bang is withstanding these challenges.12 Those scientist who do oppose the big bang, do so for philosophical more so than for scientific reasons.13 Has research stopped in cosmology because the big bang reveals the necessity of a Creator? Hardly.

Given the most recent discoveries in cosmology regarding the universe's transcendent beginning (i.e. independent of matter, energy, space and time), the design features of the universe, and the research supporting the An explanation for the nature of the universe, and for the values of its fundamental constants, that states either that the universe is as it is because otherwise we wouldn't be here to observe it, or that the very presence of intelligent life constrains the universe to be as it is.anthropic principle, it is odd that many scientists resist appealing to supernatural causes to explain phenomena in the material world. This refusal is an a priori philosophical position and not the result of the scientific process. In fact, nearly all of the earliest modern scientists, were first, and foremost, Christians. These early pioneers gave birth to and nurtured modern science because of their Christian world-view.14, 15 The evidence from cosmology indicates the necessity of a supernatural, transcendent Creator. If this is so, we should respond to the evidence and accommodate possible supernatural explanations in other scientific areas.

With respect to human origins, evolutionary biologists have made an a priori philosophical commitment to a strictly naturalistic explanation based primarily on a neo-Darwinian evolutionary paradigm. Moreover, many of these scientists refuse to use newly discovered data to evaluate the theory of Darwinian evolution. When the data is enigmatic and contradicts the theory of evolution, no consideration is given to the possibility that the theory may be wrong. Instead, these workers go through intellectual contortions to make the data fit the theory. This is an important point to keep in mind during this discussion. At the end of the day, we all have biases that we bring to the table. No scientist is completely objective. Honest scholarship demands that these biases be clearly communicated and taken into consideration at all times.

Outside of astronomy, the question of origins is not science, but rather history. Origins research seeks to recount the events of a unique, one-time occurrence in the past. With the exception of astronomy, the opportunity to design and repeat carefully controlled experiments is not available to those engaged in deciphering origins. Therefore, the approach to the problem must be one in which possible scenarios are proposed and evaluated based on the available observational and historical evidence. The scenario which best fits all the data becomes the most likely sequence of events. It is a weight-of-evidence approach. New discoveries help to evaluate the likelihood of the available scenarios. However, the evidence in all totality must be considered even in the light of new discoveries. Scenarios can be falsified, but never conclusively proven true. Moreover, we would expect to see certain pieces of evidence for each scenario. In this respect, there is a predictive component to origins research.

The Scenarios for Man's Origin

To date, most scientists, and much of the general public, have accepted only one scenario for human origins, namely, the evolutionary scenario. With it being the only scenario under consideration, it is not surprising that many scientists regard human evolution as a fact. Again, given the recent developments in cosmology, astronomy, and physics, we are lead to consider an additional scenario, the biblical scenario. If the biblical scenario is truly without merit, it will not be supported by the scientific data and can be discarded. However, if it is consistent with the scientific evidence, then it deserves to be considered as a legitimate, scientific alternative to evolution regardless of the implications it has to non-Christian worldviews and philosophies.

The Evolutionary Scenario16

The current theories of human evolution describe modern humans as emerging gradually from more primitive A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates through Darwinian processes. A genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecus, which appears in the fossil record about 4.4 to 1.5 million years ago throughout eastern Africa, is the first A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primate genus that is thought to have directly lead to modern humans. A genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecus comprises a diverse group of small-brained extinct A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal species that were confined to the savannas of Africa. Over time, it is thought that this genus gave way to the genus A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo. Among Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists, there is no consensus as to which Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecine species gave rise to A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo. Nor are there clearly established evolutionary relationships among numerous A genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecus and A genus of extinct bipedal hominids, a robust member of the australopithecines (Australopithecus), living 2.7 to 1.2 million years ago,.Paranthropus species. A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo first appears in the fossil record about 2 million years ago with the appearance of An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis in eastern Africa. As pointed out in the Time article,17 human evolution is not thought to have occurred via the simple progression of improved A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid species over time, but rather involved a menagerie of ape-like animals involved in an "elimination tournament" all vying for survival and dominance. As with the Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines, there is no consensus model for evolutionary relationships among A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo, and no acknowledged direct ancestor to The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans).

The Biblical Scenario18

The creation account of man in Genesis 1:26-27 states, "Let us make (asah) man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground. So God created (bara) man in his own image, in the image of God, he created (bara) him; male and female he created (bara) them."

The words in parentheses are the ancient Hebrew words that are translated into English as the word create. The Hebrew definitions19 of these words have direct bearing on this discussion.

Asah - to make, create. It is used in the sense of fashioning an already created object.

Bara - to create, bring about, to bring into existence out of nothing. Indicates a new creative act not a refashioning of an existing object.

The creation of man is described using two different verbs in the Hebrew. One verb (asah) means to fashion using a substance already in existence. The other verb (bara) means to bring something into existence that never existed before. This accounts for man's connection to the animal kingdom, and his biochemical and morphological similarity to other An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates.20 This also considers his unique qualities, such as awareness of absolute right and wrong, concern about death and beyond, a tendency towards worship of that which is outside of nature, and self-awareness. These spiritual qualities cause man to bear God's image, and give man his unique standing among all living creatures in the animal kingdom.

Biblical dating of man's origins using genealogies in Genesis puts his first appearance at tens of thousands of years ago, but no later. These genealogies are incomplete but adequate for their intended purposes in the text. The biblical account describes humans as originating from a single geographical region. Moreover, it requires the sudden appearance of modern man in the fossil and archeological record and no clear connection with any other A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primate. (This does not mean that man does not share anatomical or biochemical features in common with Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids, but rather that there is no clear evolutionary connection to other Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids.)

The Biblical Perspective on the Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Hominids21

We view the Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids assigned to A genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecus and A genus of extinct bipedal hominids, a robust member of the australopithecines (Australopithecus), living 2.7 to 1.2 million years ago,.Paranthropus as being ape-like creatures that possessed an intelligence, will and emotion. The Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines had some form of A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal capability and quite possibly used crude tools. These ape-like mammals were present on the earth from around 4.5 million years ago until about 1.5 million years ago when they went extinct. Likewise, we regard the Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids assigned to early A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo such as An extinct species of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectus, An extinct bipedal hominid that lived throughout eastern and southern Africa between 1.9 to 1.4 million years ago, that used advanced stone tools and possibly fire.Homo ergaster, An extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Europe between 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago.Homo antecessor, An extinct bipedal hominid, 'Heidelberg Man', living between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago in Europe, that used stone tools.Homo heidelbergensis, and An extinct species of the genus Homo, also known as Neanderthal (or Neandertal) man, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Homo neanderthalensis as being upright walking An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates that possessed intelligence, will and emotion. There is no evidence that these animals possessed a spirit, since no religious activity can be seen in the archeological record. Although these animals used tools, the tools used, even by An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals, were not as sophisticated as those used by modern humans. Moreover, An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals showed different behavior and in all likelihood did not possess language capacity.22 While not specifically alluded to in the text of Genesis 1, the Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids creation is encompassed by the Day Six Creation events in which the nepesh23 or animals with will, emotion and intelligence are created.

The Scientific Evidence

With two general scenarios for man's origins outlined, we now turn to the scientific evidence to determine which scenario best accommodates all the evidence.

Contrary to the claims of some Creationists,24, 25 we find that there is ample evidence from the fossil and archeological evidence for the existence of A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates species dating back to 4.5 million years ago. The dates and ages of the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossils are not widely disputed in the scientific community. We share this view. We do not take the position that the examples of Nebraska Man and Piltdown Man call into question the validity of the entire A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record and the existence of the now extinct A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids. In fact, we will demonstrate that the reality and reliability of the fossil record, along with work in molecular genetics provides powerful support for the biblical scenario for the origin of humans and call into question the evolutionary scenario. However, as we will demonstrate, Nebraska Man is an extreme example that, in dramatic fashion, points out the problems associated with the drastically incomplete and fragmentary nature of the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil finds.

The nomenclature used by Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists when discussing A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates can be misleading. These scientists often refer to all the members of the genus's A genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecus, A genus of extinct bipedal hominids, a robust member of the australopithecines (Australopithecus), living 2.7 to 1.2 million years ago,.Paranthropus, and A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo as human. This is unfortunate. In our experience, we have noted that those not familiar with this practice commonly misinterpret this to indicate that the scientific evidence places human beings (The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens) as far back as 4.5 million years ago. In the process, the marked morphological and behavioral differences between the extinct Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids and modern man are not clearly noted. Even more confusing is the practice of some Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologiststo refer to all A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo species including An extinct species of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectus, An extinct bipedal hominid, 'Heidelberg Man', living between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago in Europe, that used stone tools.Homo heidelbergensis, "Archaic" The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens, An extinct species of the genus Homo, also known as Neanderthal (or Neandertal) man, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Homo neanderthalensis as The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens. This practice reflects in part the bias of many Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists towards a naturalistic view of mankind's origin and leads to the misperception that human evolution has a stronger basis in fact than actually indicated by the data. In this paper, we will use the term human to refer strictly to The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens, which first appear in the fossil record less than 100,000 years ago.

Is It Possible To Declare Human Evolution As A Fact?

It is widely acknowledged that the fossil record is incomplete. Yet many Persons who study fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontologists hold that while incomplete, the fossil record is generally adequate enough to discern patterns such as stasis and absence of gradual evolutionary trends.26 The A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record too is incomplete, but it is questionable if the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record is adequate to discern clear The study of relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations), determined through sequencing and morphological data.phylogenetic relationships. Most A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil discoveries are partial The part of the skull that encloses the brain.crania, partial jaws, isolated teeth or and occasionally isolated limbs.27, 28 It is very rare for Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists to find a complete The part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranium, let alone a complete skeleton. Moreover, very few of the extinct A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid species are known from a large numbers of samples. In most cases, there are a limited number of specimens that are attributed to a given A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid species. Further compounding this problem, is the fact that the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid remains often have been crushed, shattered, and deformed prior to fossilization or through geological processes. (See below for a further discussion on the particular problems associated with Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial fossils and their use to estimate A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain volume.)

It is not clear how many A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid species have existed throughout the course of the last 4.5 million years. In part, this is due to the incompleteness of the fossil record. However, it is also a function of the nature of the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominidfossil record as well. With a limited number of Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial and post Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial fossil fragments to work with it is not clear if observed differences in morphology are true indicators of a novel species or simply intraspecific variations within a population, across geography or through time. This problem and its implications are illustrated in a recent report describing a newly discovered partial The part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranium and partial jaw ascribed to A species of extinct hominid, living 2.6 to 1.2 million years ago, considered it to be the first hominin species to use stone tools. Formerly classified as Australopithecus boisei.Paranthropus boisei.29, 30

The ambiguity surrounding the definition of a species further complicates the process of determining the number of A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid species.31 There is no established relationship between morphological differences and speciation. A species can be defined as an interbreeding population (biological species concept) or as morphologically distinct populations (The study of relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations), determined through sequencing and morphological data.phylogenetic species concept). Based on which concept the researcher embraces he/she will either view novel anatomical features as indicative of a new species (splitters) or as an intraspecific variation (lumpers). That is, researcher opinion may have as much to do with determining A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid Taxonomic units are names designating groups of organisms.taxa as does objective scientific data. In addition, recent studies of plant33 and bacterial34 kingdoms suggest that morphology alone is often not indicative of genetic relationships.

Evolutionary The histories of descent of taxa from common ancestors, including the relative times at which species branched or diverged from each other.phylogenies (relationships) are determined by comparing anatomical similarities in the fossil record and among extant species. Given the problems with the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record it is questionable if evolutionary biologists can ever hope for more than crude working The histories of descent of taxa from common ancestors, including the relative times at which species branched or diverged from each other.phylogenies.32 Examination of textbooks and treatises on human evolution point to the reality that Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists are far from reaching a consensus on the pathway of A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid and human evolution.35, 36 The uncertainty of A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid The study of relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations), determined through sequencing and morphological data.phylogenetic relationships has recently been underscored.37, 38 Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.Paleoanthropologists, Bernard Wood and Mark Collard have presented a convincing argument for the removal of the two closely related species An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis from the genus A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo and their placement among Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines. An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis are now recognized as having ape-like body mass, body proportions, teeth, and jaws closely related to Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines. The The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism possessed by these organisms is also distinct from the obligate The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism of The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens, and closely aligned to that of the Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines. A An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis and the other Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines displayed facultative The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism and the capability for tree climbing.39, 40 This new understanding now weakens the position of An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis as transitional species. These two species have long been regarded as transitional species between the Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines and An extinct species of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectus. Placement of species An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis among Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines creates a discontinuity in A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid The histories of descent of taxa from common ancestors, including the relative times at which species branched or diverged from each other.phylogenies. This recent work was not cited in the Time article. Could it be that the reason for this is that it does not help "fill in the story of how we evolved", but reveals how little insight Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists have into human origins?

There are other problems that frustrate Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists' efforts to establish A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid evolutionary relationships.41 Convergent features are quite common among A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossils and suggest evolutionary connections among Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids that do not exist. It is troubling to discover that Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists recognize this as a wide spread problem, but have no clear understanding as which traits are convergent. Additionally, small data sets that are focused on A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid The part of the skull that encloses the brain.crania also lead to artificial results, since other important anatomical features are disregarded. Postcranial fossils are not as abundant as Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial remains in the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record. Moreover, Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial traits are often treated as independent from one another. In actuality, many of these traits are more appropriately grouped as a trait complex. If trait complexes are not recognized, then artificially strong evolutionary relatedness is concluded when in fact it may not be the case at all.

It is clear that evolutionary relationships proposed by Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists are highly speculative and developed from unreliable and poorly understood data sets of limited size. In light of this, it is scientifically untenable to assert that human evolution is a fact. What is a fact, is that evolutionary biologists have chosen to interpret their data within an evolutionary paradigm exclusively. From this framework, they then declare that their data supports human evolution. In order to demonstrate that humans evolved by natural processes, there must be rigorous evidence of clearly established evolutionary relationships with obvious transitions in the fossil record. The fact that there is no consensus among Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists concerning the pathway of human evolution, nor can there ever be given the data available, means that human evolution has not been established as a fact. In addition to time-based verification, there also must be a well-defined mechanism that can produce the necessary evolutionary changes in the time available. Recent work on methodology to determine extinct A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain size indicates that this is also not the case for human evolution.

Brain Size Measurements

One of the key anatomical characteristics that distinguishes humans from other An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates (both extant and extinct) is brain size - both absolute brain size and the relative size of the brain with respect to overall body mass.42 This is particularly significant, since our large brain is responsible for our intelligence and the special ability to develop and use symbolic communication, speech, and tools that are foundational for establishing and maintaining human cultures and civilizations. More importantly, the human brain is responsible for our consciousness and self-awareness. It is not surprising that Persons who study fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontologists have focused much attention on brain size in their human evolutionary models. Estimates made by Persons who study fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontologists from fossil specimens seem to suggest that a continuous increase in A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain size has occurred with time across species that are regarded as being Regarding the study of the relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations), determined through sequencing and morphological data.phylogenetically related.43, 44 Furthermore, surveys of brain size ranges estimated by Persons who study fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontologists for purported ancestor and descendent species appear to overlap supporting the evolutionary model for human origins.45

In light of this seemingly compelling evidence for human evolution, it is important to note that there are significant problems associated with making brain size measurements of A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossils. Many of the available fossil skulls are damaged and deformed and/or only partially complete making the measurement of Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial volume possible only after researchers have corrected for the damage and reconstructed the skull to include the missing parts46.Obviously, researcher error in making these reconstructions is a concern and will impact brain size determinations. Further complicating reported surveys of A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain size is the presence of a stone matrix within other fossilized skulls preventing the preparation of an A cast made of the mold formed by the impression the brain makes on the inside of the braincase.endocast.47 The mineralized matrix cannot be removed without damaging the internal features of these skull samples rendering the resultant A cast made of the mold formed by the impression the brain makes on the inside of the braincase.endocast useless for brain size determination. For these specimens, brain size is calculated based on measurements of external skull features using modified equations developed for human Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial size determinations. Again, error is introduced, since workers must make assumptions in order to modify the original equation without being able to validate these modifications. Error also results from attempting to make high precision measurements on external skull features that are deformed or damaged. Clearly, reported values of A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain size must be regarded as estimates.

Recently a team led by Glenn Conroy developed and validated methodology to accurately and precisely measure the Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial capacity of fossil skulls based on 3-D Digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.computed tomography imaging (Computed tomography imaging is digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.CTI) technology and rapid-prototyping stereolithography techniques.48,49,50 The measurements made by this approach are objective and are highly reproducible and more accurate than the corresponding hand-made measurements which are subjective and prone to researcher error. A 2% error was found when Computed tomography imaging is digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.CTI brain size results for 10 human skulls were compared with volumes determined directly by filling the skulls with mustard seed.

Conroy and co-workers applied their Computed tomography imaging is digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.CTI methodology to determine the brain size of an A species of extinct hominid, living 3-2 million years ago, made famous by the skeletons "Taung Child" and "Mrs. Ples."Australopithecus africanus specimen, Stw 505, discovered in Sterkfontein, South Africa, which has been dated at 2.6 to 2.8 million years old.51 Earlier estimates of brain size for this specimen surpassed 600 mL, which would make it the largest A species of extinct hominid, living 3-2 million years ago, made famous by the skeletons "Taung Child" and "Mrs. Ples."Australopithecus africanus brain known exceeding that of many early A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo species. If this were indeed the case, then it would garner support for A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid evolution, in general, and more specifically, for models in which A species of extinct hominid, living 3-2 million years ago, made famous by the skeletons "Taung Child" and "Mrs. Ples."Australopithecus africanus evolved into An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis. In contrast to both of these scenarios, Conroy and his colleagues measured the brain size of Stw 505 at ~515 mL - approximately 15% smaller than initial estimates. This result has not gone unchallenged. In separate responses, C. A. Lockwood and W. H. Kimball,52 and J. Hawks and M. H. Wolpoff53 have asserted that Conroy and his team failed to adequately take into account damage and deformation when making Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial volume measurements resulting in a low biased measurement. However, in response to these protests, Conroy and his co-workers have clearly demonstrated that their result is sound and has been arrived at by carefully considering and correcting for any post mortem damage and deformation.54 There seems to be little doubt that the Stw 505 specimen is not an extraordinary fossil find, but rather represents a typical A species of extinct hominid, living 3-2 million years ago, made famous by the skeletons "Taung Child" and "Mrs. Ples."Australopithecus africanus skull.

The implications of these Computed tomography imaging is digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.CTI measurements extend beyond the importance of the Stw 505 sample. Conroy and co-authors conclude the Science article describing this work by stating: "The recognition that no Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecine has an Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial capacity approaching, let alone exceeding, 600 mL, and that several key early A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial estimates may be inflated [my emphasis], suggests that current views of the tempo and mode of early A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain evolution may need re-evaluation."55 Commenting on this work, Dean Falk, of SUNY at Albany, echoed these concerns, noting that several Casts made of the mold formed by the impression the brain makes on the inside of the braincase.endocasts in her collection appear to be considerably smaller than initially measured using calipers.56 Dean Falk has confidently held to this view even in the face of a direct protest from One who studies a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologist Tim White of UC Berkeley.57, 58

The bias in brain size measurements will undoubtedly be extended to include other specimens as the Computed tomography imaging is digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.CTI technique is more broadly applied. It is interesting to note that the study of Conroy and co-workers is not the first to suggest that A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial volumes reported in the Related to the branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropological literature are biased high. Responding to Conroy's paper, Ralph Holloway of Columbia University has pointed out that as early as the 1970's he recognized that several reported Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial volume measurements were over estimated.59 Holloway published Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial volumes for the Sts 71 specimen of 428 mL and for the Taung Child of 404 mL compared to previously reported values at the time of 480 - 520 mL, and 525 - 562 mL, respectively. Holloway also reported an Refers to the interior of the braincase or cranium.endocranial volume of 480 mL for the Sts 5 specimen which Conroy and his fellow researchers have recently confirmed using Computed tomography imaging is digital geometry processing that is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation.CTI.60 Most recently, Dean Falk reported at the 1999 annual meeting of the American Association for Physical Anthropology held in Columbus, Ohio that the Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial capacity of several A. africanus specimens were re-measured to be about 450 mL compared to the previously reported values near 500 mL.61

It appears as if the approaches used by Persons who study fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontologists to measure brain size of extinct Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids has been yielding results that are about 15% to 20% higher than the actual value. This throws serious doubt on the reliability of brain size estimates that have appeared in the Related to the branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropological literature. Caution should be used when considering any analysis or survey that uses heretofore reported brain size values to establish evolutionary scenarios. When this high bias is accounted for in A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid brain size surveys, any possibility of overlap between the brain size of extinct Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids and modern The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens is removed. A gap in brain size between An extinct species of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectus and modern The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens is counter to what would be expected if a continuous descent with modification mechanism was responsible for human origins. Furthermore, the existence of a gap in brain size would demand an even more dramatic rate of evolutionary change than currently believed necessary to produce the pronounced changes needed to form the human brain by an evolutionary process. It would be premature at this point to conclude that a gap exists in the brain size between extinct A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo species and modern humans based on a single study. However, the results that are now being reported by Conroy and others represent a powerful challenge to the assertion that A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid evolution is a fact. Interestingly, Lemonick and Dorfman did not cite this significant work in the Time article.

Appearance of Modern Man

The timing and the nature of the appearance of modern man in the fossil record are important to establishing the validity of the biblical scenario for the origin of man. The fossil evidence clearly shows that at about 40,000 years ago, there was an explosive appearance of Cro-Magnon man. Cro-Magnon man is indistinguishable from modern humans (The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens).62 Prior to the sudden appearance of Cro-Magnon man, the fossil record is extremely sparse and unclear. There is the possibility that The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens may have appeared as far back as 100,000 to 130,000 years ago based on the Omo Kibish discovery and the discoveries at Qafzel and Skhul in Israel.63, 64 These specimens show some anatomical similarity to The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens, but display clear behavioral differences. The behavior of these Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids is closely akin to that of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals. It is important to note that the dating of these samples has been problematic. Specimens that fall between 30,000 years ago and 500,000 years ago are not covered by the well-established 14C and potassium-argon dating techniques.65 The dates estimated for have been estimated using the newly developed A dating teachnique determination accomplished by measuring the accumulated radiation dose of the time elapsed since material containing crystalline minerals was either heated (lava, ceramics) or exposed to sunlight.thermoluminescence and A chronometric dating method that estimates dates from observation of radioactive atoms trapped in the calcite crystals present in a number of materials, such as bones and shells.electron spin resonance techniques. These dates must be regarded as estimates, at best.

Another interesting feature of the A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid fossil record is the apparent disappearance of The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens between 80,000 and 40,000 years ago. From an evolutionary perspective it has been proposed that The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens populations plummeted to near extinction and then for some unknown reason bounced back in full force about 40,000 years ago.66 This population bottleneck is viewed by evolutionary biologists as being responsible for the high degree of genetic uniformity among modern humans. (See below.)

The sudden appearance of modern humans in the fossil record at 40,000 years ago is in complete agreement with the biblical date for the appearance of mankind. Given the that the fossil record is so dearth and the dating is problematic beyond 35,000 years ago, it is uncertain as to the true identity or true time of appearance of the Omo Kibbish and Qafzeh and Skhul finds. It is quite conceivable that these specimens may not even be The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens, given their behavior. If these specimens are not true humans, then the absence of The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens in the fossil record between 40,000 and 80,000 years ago may actually represent the extinction of those particular species of A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates, or reflect the fact that The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens did not appear on earth until about 40,000 years ago. If this is the case, then, the sudden appearance of modern man at 40,000 years ago can be attributed to the special creation of man by the Creator.

Archeological Evidence

With the explosive emergence of Cro-Magnon Man in the fossil record around 40,000 years ago came rapid changes in the archeological record. There is a sudden increase in the complexity of the tool kit and sophistication of tool use observed around this time. The suddenness of this change in the archeological record is even more striking given that prior to the emergence of modern humans in the fossil record, the style and use of stone tools remained stagnant for hundreds of thousands of years.67 Showing up nearly concomitantly with the rapid shift in tool kit is the sudden appearance of sophisticated art and religious expression. Sophisticated works of art first appear in the fossil record about 40,000-50,000 years ago68, 69 and evidence of religious expression appears only 25,000-50,000 years ago.70, 71 Prior to the appearance of sophisticated art around 40,000-50,000 years ago, very little if any evidence for art appears in the archeological record. Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.Paleoanthropologists have referred to this as the "big bang" of artistic expression.72, 73 The quality of the artistic expression in these ancient works of art is spectacular. For example, in the recently discovered Grotte Chauvet caves, which contain the oldest advanced cave art yet discovered (dated at 32,000 years ago), the quality of the art work is so remarkable that it has demolished all previous chronologies for the development of artistic techniques such as shading and perspective.74 The paintings in these caves are actually more sophisticated than the work found in caves such as Lascaux and Altamira in which the cave art is dated at half the age of that found in Grotte Chauvet.

The rapid changes seen around 35, 000 to 45, 000 years ago include:75

These results are contrary to what would be expected for the gradual evolutionary transformation of archaic The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens species into modern humans. If an evolutionary mechanism was responsible for modern man's appearance, then evidence of gradual transformations should be observed in the archeological record. We simply do not see this. In the words of One who studies a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologist Christopher Stringer, "It is an extraordinary catalogue of achievements that seem to have come from virtually nowhere."76 The fossil and archeological records are both consistent with the biblical scenario and Biblical date for man's beginnings.

Genetic Evidence

Up to this point, we have shown that the fossil and archeological evidence does not unequivocally establish human evolution as a fact. Moreover, there is nothing in the fossil and archeological record that precludes the biblical scenario for man's origins as being true. In fact, 1) the discontinuity created in evolutionary scenarios by assigning An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis to Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines; 2) the problems with the overestimation of brain size in extinct Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids and then the need it creates for identifying a mechanism to account for rapid the increase in brain size with the appearance of modern humans; and 3) the sudden appearance of The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens and complex behavior in the fossil and archeological record after a 40,000 year absence of any species closely resembling modern humans provides support for the Biblical creation model.

Additional support for the Biblical scenario for man's origin comes from the lack of genetic diversity of humans. As biologists studied humans and species of apes in the 1970's and 1980's, some rather surprising information was being discovered that distinguished modern man from apes and other An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates. Surprisingly, scientists discovered that human genetic diversity is far less than what one would predict from Darwinian theory.77-79 The genetic variation among the different human races has been found to be much less than that for isolated populations of Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzees, Arboreal great apes belonging to the genus Pongo, consisting of two species, Pongo pygmaeus of Borneo and Pongo abelii, characterized by a reddish-brown coat, very long arms, and no tail.orangutans, and other An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primate species. In addition, an analysis of the genetics of populations of apes reveals that different population groups possess fixed novel Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations that characterize each population. In contrast, there are no novel Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations or genetic Variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location, on a chromosome.alleles that specifically characterize any one human race from another. Dr. Maryellen Ruvolo (Harvard University) has noted, "It's a mystery none of us can explain."80 Moreover, examination of the genetic The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences of diverse modern human populations reveals minor differences.81 All of this evidence suggested a recent origin for modern humans.

In the late 1980's and early 1990's a number of studies examined the Of or referring to the mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA (Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA) of women all over the world. These studies suggested that the last common ancestor of modern man (actually women) appeared within the last 200,000 years, which is much more recent than previously thought.82-85 Refinements in the measurements lowered the original estimates to 135,000 years86 and finally to 100,000 years87 (and as discussed below even possibly 50,000 years). Scientists chose to examine Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA because, being enclosed within the subcellular organelle called the The organelle that generates energy for the cell.mitochondrion, there is no genetic recombination (males make no contribution of Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA to the fetus). All Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA comes from our mothers and is passed down from mother to daughter, since only The organelles that generate energy for the cell.mitochondria from the egg are used to make up the fetus. By tracing the differences in Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA from peoples around the world, scientists have calculated the probable date of the last common ancestor of modern humans at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. Recent studies on the frequency of The presence of a mixture of more than one type of an organellar genome (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or plastid DNA) within a cell or individual.heteroplasmy (the possession of different Of or referring to the mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mitochondrial biochemical types within a cell) indicates that Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations occur in Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA at a higher rate than initially thought. Re-calibration of the Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA molecular clock to take into account the higher A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rate places the most likely date for man's appearance near 50,000 years ago.88, 89

In 1995, scientists have examined human origins from the perspective of male genetics.90, 91 Scientists have examined a The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene (ZFY), which being on the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome, is passed down only from father to son. Thirty-eight men were chosen from all over the world (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and Northern, Central, and South America). Scientists determined the actual genetic The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence in each man for this The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene, which is 729 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs long. To their surprise, all men had identical genetic The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequences (over 27,000 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs analyzed). Scientists have calculated the most probable date for the last common ancestor of modern man, given the The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence diversity from modern apes. Using two different models this date is either 270,000 or 27,000 years ago. However, both these models assume that the male population during this entire period of time consisted of only 7,500 individuals. The date estimates from these models would be significantly reduced if the male population were higher than 7,500, which is very likely. Two separate studies using similar techniques looked at larger pieces of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome, which would reduce the uncertainty in the calculation of dates. One study examined a The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.gene which was 2,600 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs and determined a last common ancestor date of 188,000 year ago (minimum of 51,000 and maximum of 411,000 years ago).92 The other study used a very large piece of the One of the two sex chromosomes that determines maleness in mammals, carried and passed down from males to males.Y chromosome (18,300 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs) and calculated a last common ancestor date of modern man of 43,000 years ago (minimum of 37,000 and maximum of 49,000 years ago).93 This latter study also examined Of or referring to the mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA from women and determined an origination date of 90,000-120,000 years ago.

A study published in 1996 examined The association of genes and/or markers that lie near each other on a chromosome that tend to be inherited together.linkage The non-random association of alleles at two or more genetic loci, in which combinations of alleles or genetic markers occur more or less frequently in a population than would be expected from a random formation of haplotypes from alleles based on their frequencies.disequilibrium at the human CD4 The place on a chromosome where a specific gene is located, a kind of address for the gene.locus (a T-cell associated antigen) as a means to establish the date of modern human origins.94 This study determined a maximum origin date of 102,000 years ago based upon the assumption that the A family of approximately 300 bp repetitive sequences, found dispersed throughout the human genome.Alu (-) Variant forms of a gene at a particular locus, or location, on a chromosome.alleles arose 5 million years ago, or almost immediately after mankind's split from other An order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, etc., often characterized by large brains and flexible hands and feet.primates. As they stated, "It is likely that the A family of approximately 300 bp repetitive sequences, found dispersed throughout the human genome.Alu deletion event occurred more recently, in which case our estimates for the date of founding of the non-African populations would also be more recent." Preliminary studies from Threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosomes 19, 11 and 8 show similar results to that seen on One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome 12 (the The place on a chromosome where a specific gene is located, a kind of address for the gene.locus of the CD4 gene).95

The A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rate among humans also suggests a recent origin for man and creates problems for the evolutionary models for the origin of man. A just completed study examined the A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rate for humans. Using "conservative assumptions" the authors found that the overall A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rates was 4.2 Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations per person per generation, with a Having a harmful of bad effect.deleterious rate of 1.6.96 When using more realistic assumptions the overall A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rate for humans become 6.7 with a Having a harmful of bad effect.deleterious rate of 3.1. Such a high rate should have resulted in extinction of our species long ago. They stated in their conclusion:

"The Having a harmful of bad effect.deleterious A permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutation rate appears to be so high in humans and our close relatives that it is doubtful that such species, which have low reproductive rates, could survive if Relating to a permanent structural alteration in DNA, consisting of either a substitution, insertion or deletion of nucleotide bases.mutational effects on fitness were to combine in a multiplicative way."

The authors had to rely upon a rare association of Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations, termed synergistic The interaction between genes, in which the action of one gene is modified by one or several other genes, which are called modifier genes. The gene whose phenotype is expressed is said to be epistatic, while the phenotype altered or suppressed is said to be hypostatic.epistasis to explain why the numerous hypothesized Having a harmful of bad effect.deleterious Permanent structural alterations in DNA, consisting of either substitutions, insertions or deletions of nucleotide bases.mutations have not overwhelmed our All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome. Instead of postulating the obvious (that the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome is not as old as evolution would teach), evolutionists must rely upon the improbable to retain the evolutionary paradigm.97

An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals

The fossil and archeological records and the genetic evidence produced by three separate lines of investigation all point to a recent origin of The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens (around 40,000 – 50,000 years ago) in line with the Biblical scenario. The most likely ancestor for modern man, given man's recent appearance on earth, is An extinct species of the genus Homo, also known as Neanderthal (or Neandertal) man, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Homo neanderthalensis. An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals lived from about 150,000 to about 40,000 years ago in Europe, parts of Asia and in the Middle East.98 (The dates for An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals is disputed in the literature.) This time frame immediately precedes the appearance of modern man. An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals evolutionary connection to modern man seem even more likely given the general anatomical similarities between An extinct species of the genus Homo, also known as Neanderthal (or Neandertal) man, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Homo neanderthalensis and The only surviving hominid species, comprising all modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens sapiens. Unlike other Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids, there are an abundance of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal fossils and artifacts available. Some 30 complete An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal skeletons have been recovered.99 This allows a rigorous assessment of the possibility that an evolutionary connection exists between modern man and An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals. Although anatomical similarities between An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and modern humans exist, researchers have also recognized many differences as well. Compared to humans An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals display:100

These differences were not regarded as meaningful by many Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists who viewed them as the result of environmental influences. That changed with the discovery of a An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal infant skeleton by Yoel Rak in 1992. This skeleton possessed many of the same anatomical distinctions leading Rak and other Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists to conclude that An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals were inherently distinct from modern humans.101

More recent work on An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal morphology continues to support this conclusion and has cast serious doubt that humans and An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals shared a common evolutionary lineage. These studies have shown key differences in An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal brain case102, 103 and the presence of an internal nasal margin, a medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall, and a lack of an ossified roof over the A deep groove found on the nasal surface of the body of the maxilla, in front of the opening of the sinus.lacrimal groove.104-107 None of these features are found in The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens, and the last feature is not found in any other terrestrial mammal! An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals had a huge nasal cavity coupled with a brain size larger than our own. However, with their carnivorous lifestyle, it seems likely that much of their brain might have been devoted to the sense of smell, being the "dog" among the Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids.

One hotly disputed question among Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists centers on An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal language capacity. While not completely conclusive, the evidence is ever increasingly pointing to the absence of speech capability and language among the An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals. For example, the structure of the An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals skull base is inconsistent with the capability for speech.108 A recent high profile study has suggested that An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and modern humans had comparable vocal abilities based on the size of the An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal hypoglossal canal.109 The hypoglossal canal transmits the nerve that supplies the tongue muscles. The argument is the more richly the tongue muscle is supplied with nerves (requiring a larger canal) the better the motor control of the tongue. This is an essential requirement for speech. However, this hypothesis has been demonstrated to be false. That is, there is no correlation between canal size and the ability to vocalize among both extinct and extant Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids.110, 111 An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal language ability is being promoted by some Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists in an attempt to maintain the evolutionary link to modern humans. However, the scientific evidence is continuing to demonstrate that as with other morphological characteristics, An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and modern humans are distinct.

The question of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals being a part of the evolutionary lineage of modern humans has been recently laid to rest by a brilliantly designed and executed study. Scientists extracted Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA from a 50,000-100,000 year old An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal skeleton.112-114 When the 397 Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pair An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA fragment was compared with a Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA The order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.sequence of 986 nucleotide pairs from living humans of diverse ethnic backgrounds, the difference was enormous — 26 One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs in the Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA differed completely (a 6.5% difference, which is almost as much as the average difference between human Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA and chimpanzee Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA, which is 8.9%).115 In this region of the Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA, modern humans differ from one another in an average of eight Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs, and those differences were completely independent of the 26 observed for the An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal fossil. The researchers conclusion: " An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals were not our ancestors" - a quote from the authors of the study. In fact, the differences compared to modern humans were so great that calculations indicated that the last common ancestor between modern man and An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal must have been at least 800,000 years ago, which was well before the first appearance of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals in the fossil record.

To add even more weight to the finding, scientists have also analyzed Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA from an ancient modern human skeleton. A British team analyzed a portion of Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA in a 10,000-year-old human skeleton found near Cheddar, England.116 The Genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.mtDNA from this skeleton differed from that of modern Europeans by only one One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pair — essentially identical to that of modern humans. The lack of "evolution" for humans over the last 10,000 years stands in sharp contrast to the differences seen between modern humans and An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals.

These amazing discoveries about An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals are being widely embraced by Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists (although there are a few dissenters).117 It is clear that not only the best, but the only legitimate candidate for modern human's ancestor has been displaced from the human evolutionary pathway. With no clear immediate ancestor to modern humans, it is scientifically unsound to maintain human evolution as a fact, let alone a reasonably scenario for the origin of man. The absence of an ancestral species to modern man is consistent with the biblical scenario.

Sadly, what has emerged as one of the most important revelations in The study of the branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropology in recent years was down played in the Time article. The recognition that An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals are a separate lineage, unrelated to man, as with other recent discoveries, highlights the weak evidential foundation of the human evolutionary paradigm. Counter to the desired theme of the Time article.

Recent High Profile Relating to the study the branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.Paleoanthropological Discoveries

In the Time article, four recent discoveries are touted as revealing new secrets about man's evolutionary past. The first discovery mentioned is that of the sister A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid species A species of extinct hominid that lived about 4.4 million years ago in Africa.Ardipithecus ramidus and A species of extinct hominid, living 4.1 and 3.9 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus anamensis dated at around 4.5 and 4.2 million years old, respectively. From an evolutionary standpoint, these are important species because they show up in the fossil record in the time frame that apes and Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids supposedly diverged (between 4 and 6 million years ago)118-124 To date no evidence has been presented to suggest that A species of extinct hominid that lived about 4.4 million years ago in Africa.Ardipithecus ramidus possessed A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal capabilities. However, the analysis of a nearly intact The inner and thicker of the two bones of the leg between the knee and ankle.tibia, indicates that A species of extinct hominid, living 4.1 and 3.9 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus anamensis had A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal capabilities.125, 126 The The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism that the Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines possessed was not the same type of The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism we possess as modern humans, but rather a facultative The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism. Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines also possessed the ability to climb trees as well. This means that at about the time that apes and Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids were diverging according to evolutionary ideas, The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism emerged. This creates a problem for the evolutionary paradigm since it does not give adequate time for the complex anatomical changes needed to support The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism to emerge. Moreover, Relating to the study of ecology that uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past.paleoecological studies suggest that the locale of the A species of extinct hominid, living 4.1 and 3.9 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus anamensis find at 4.2 million years ago was a mixture of savanna and woodlands.127 Given that fact, an animal with mixed A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal and arboreal climbing abilities is well suited for its environment. It is no longer believed that the change from woodland to savannas drove the emergence of The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism.128, 129 This leaves Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists with no driving force or selective pressure to explain the emergence of The ability of a species to utilize a form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are used for movement.bipedalism.

Also discussed in the Time article is the discovery of a novel Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecine (A a gracile australopithecine species of extinct hominid, living 3.0 to 2.0 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus garhi) dated at about 2.5 million years ago in Ethiopia. Because of its date, and the location of the find, it has been described as the missing transitional species between Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines and A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo. However, the evidence supporting this interpretation is not compelling nor is it as widely accepted among Persons who study fossil organisms and their related remains.paleontologists, as we would be lead to believe in the Time article.130-133 First, it should be pointed out that the evidence for this new species comes from a single partial fragmented skull and an upper leg and forearm bone discovered in the same general region, in the same Of or pertaining to the arrangement of strata or rock layers.stratigraphic layer, but one year apart. Under the best of circumstances, the data represents two individuals of the same species. The possibility is quite real that the fossil remains from the two finds are unrelated. Even, if the fossils come from the same species, they only represent two individuals. Because of this, there is no real understanding of the natural range of variation for the putative species traits or whether the fossil's characteristics are the result of geological deformations or other anomalies. Moreover, the traits exhibited by the fossil skull, at best, only weakly link it to A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo. Most Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists are not certain as to A a gracile australopithecine species of extinct hominid, living 3.0 to 2.0 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus garhi's relationship to other Members of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominids. Given the recent re-assignment of the early A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo species An extinct species of the genus Homo, which lived approximately 2.5 million to 1.6 million years ago.Homo habilis and An ape-like extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Africa around 1.9 million years ago.Homo rudolfensis to the Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines, the putative similarity to early A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo becomes even less meaningful.134 Recently reported The study of relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations), determined through sequencing and morphological data.phylogenetic analysis employing A system of biological taxonomy based on the quantitative analysis of comparative data and used to reconstruct cladograms summarizing the (assumed) phylogenetic relations and evolutionary history of groups of organisms.cladistics concludes that the placement of A a gracile australopithecine species of extinct hominid, living 3.0 to 2.0 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus garhi ancestral to A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo should be rejected.135 B. Asfaw et al. have challenged these results claiming misapplication of A system of biological taxonomy based on the quantitative analysis of comparative data and used to reconstruct cladograms summarizing the (assumed) phylogenetic relations and evolutionary history of groups of organisms.cladistics. Rather than using the data they reported for objective comparison, these workers prefer a subjective interpretation of their data.136 It should be noted that the conclusions reported from the A system of biological taxonomy based on the quantitative analysis of comparative data and used to reconstruct cladograms summarizing the (assumed) phylogenetic relations and evolutionary history of groups of organisms.cladistics analysis were based on the results of two independent analyses.137 Moreover, other Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists have pointed out that it does not appear that there would be enough available time for evolution to transform A a gracile australopithecine species of extinct hominid, living 3.0 to 2.0 million years ago in East Africa."Australopithecus garhi to A genus within the subfamily Homininae that includes modern humans and related species (e.g., Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo sapiens).Homo.138 The use of tools and meat eating behavior attributed to this animal are interesting, but have limited bearing on its human character, since this behavior is also observed for Two living species of ape in the genus Pan, including Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, and Pan paniscust, also known as Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee.chimpanzees.

Also mentioned in the Time article is the discovery of An extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Europe between 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago.Homo antecessor, dated at around 800,000 years ago. This A member of the biological family Hominidae, which includes all the "great apes," - extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.hominid has been proposed as an ancestor species for both An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and modern humans.139, 140 An extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Europe between 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago.Homo antecessor has been designated as a new species and as a key transitional fossil based on very limited data, namely, the partial face of a juvenile, the likelihood of delayed dental maturation and the crudely estimated brain volume from a single Referring to the part of the skull that encloses the brain.cranial fragment.141-144 This has lead to concerns among Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists. Not only because the designation as species is based on a single partial skull, but also because it is based on a juvenile specimen. With this being the case, there is no understanding of the variation occurring across the species nor through the developmental process.145, 146 The possibility remains that this sample is a An extinct species of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectus specimen. The importance to the human evolutionary scenario that Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists ascribe of the An extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Europe between 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago.Homo antecessor samples has yet to be established.147 If anything, the existence of An extinct bipedal hominid that lived in Europe between 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago.Homo antecessor as a novel species has the potential to throw the field of human evolutionary biology into a state of chaos, not yield new insight. For example, J. M. Bermudez de Castro et al., are suggesting that An extinct species of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectus is no longer part of the evolutionary pathway leading to modern man and An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals, but rather is a side lineage without descendents.148, 149

The final discovery cited in the Time article is the uncovering of a child burial in the Lapedo Valley, just north of Lisbon, Portugal. The workers who discovered and studied the 24,500 year old skeleton concluded that it is possesses a mix of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal and modern human anatomical characteristics.150, 151 This interpretation supports the notion that An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and The only surviving hominid species, comprising modern human beings and characterized as being a bipedal primate with a large brain capacity, capable of language and the ability to make and use complex tools.Homo sapiens interbred resulting in the disappearance of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and the emergence of modern humans. Because the date of this find is after the disappearance of An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals, it has been concluded that there was significant interbreeding between the two populations, not just isolated interactions. This claim serves to keep the evolutionary connection between An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals and modern humans alive and challenges the accumulating morphological and biochemical evidence that An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertals have no The study of relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations), determined through sequencing and morphological data.phylogenetic relationship to modern man, but rather disappeared without descent. (See above.) This interpretation has not been met with much enthusiastic support by Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists. Commenting on this discovery, Ian Tattersal and Jeffery Schwartz state, "the analysis by Duarte et al of the Lager Velho child's skeleton is a brave and imaginative interpretation, of which it is unlikely that a majority of Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists will consider proven."152 The reasons for the lukewarm response of the anthropological community are many. First, as Tattersal and Schwartz point out, nobody knows what a An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal-human hybrid would look like.153 Secondly, this is a single find, if interbreeding was really so wide spread, then, as Christopher Stringer points out, we would expect to find these features in the numerous fossils of modern humans.154 More specific arguments against the interbreeding hypothesis include the fact that the grave containing the specimen was a typical human grave and the skeleton not only possesses no derived An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal features, but also has no hint of any An extinct species (Homo neanderthalensis) of the genus Homo, which appeared approximately 400,000 years ago.Neandertal morphology.155 It seems as if the fossil simply represents a stocky human child or human child with a growth abnormality.156

These recent discoveries have no doubt elicited interest among Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists. However, the importance attributed to most of these discoveries by Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists as reported in the Time article is over blown. Moreover, it is not clear what insight these discoveries offer to those embracing an evolutionary scenario for man's origins. In fact, if anything, they point out speculative nature of human evolutionary models and the lack of insight into the emergence of man that exists among Scientists who study a branch of anthropology dealing with fossil hominids.paleoanthropologists. Finally, the early and sudden appearance of Referring to members of a genus of extinct hominids, characterized by being the earliest bipedal primate (up to 3.7 million years ago).Australopithecines with A form of walking characterized by an erect stance in which the rear legs are utilized for movement.bipedal capability in a wood land/forest ecology creates a serious problem for the evolutionary paradigm.

Conclusion Top of page

We have presented comprehensive scientific evidence that, contrary to commonly held view that humans have evolved from an ape-like ancestor, supports the biblical scenario for man's origin as described in Genesis 1. It is clear from our analysis, that human evolution has not been established as a scientific fact. To declare evolution as a fact, and to only examine data in light of evolutionary theory, is counter to the way that the scientific enterprise is conducted, and reflects a philosophical position. Modern cosmology and physics have allowed for the introduction of possible supernatural explanations for the material universe and phenomenon occurring within the universe – particularly for scientific research into origins.

We have evaluated the scientific evidence in light of two scenarios: the evolutionary scenario and the biblical scenario. When taken as a whole, the scientific evidence more closely agrees with the biblical scenario. In fact, the paleontological evidence fails to establish a clearly defined evolutionary pathway with readily recognized transitions. Moreover, the evolutionary paradigm cannot explain the sudden, recent appearance of modern man on earth with no evidence for an evolutionary ancestor.

Our analysis demonstrates that the creationist view deserves consideration in the science classroom along with the evolutionary paradigm. The words of the Bible and the facts and record of nature are not at odds, but are in full agreement.


Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of ManWho Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man. Are humans just advanced apes or have they been specially created in the image of God? Publications by scientists almost never ask the question, whereas publications by theists seldom examine the scientific data that relates to the question. However, two scientists raised in non-Christian homes, Fuz Rana (Ph.D. in chemistry) and Hugh Ross (Ph.D. in astronomy), have written a new book (Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man) that examines the question of human origins by comparing biblical and evolutionary models.


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