This is not a complete list of the evidence from creation that the Earth is ancient, but is sufficient to provide a reasonable support for the idea. The Bible is not silent on the issue, since even Genesis (the first book of the Bible) declares that the mountains and hills are ancient.1 Most of the evidence presented does not give an exact age of the universe, but just a lower minimum age. Many have complained that the measurements of the age of the universe are based upon assumptions that are questionable. However, recent studies have calculated the vast distances to astronomical sources based upon geometry! The calculation of distances using triangulation require no assumptions, but are based purely upon mathematical principles.
Why must we, who trust the Bible, believe the testimony of the creation? The Bible tells us that the creation declares the truth about God:
- The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. (Psalm 19:1-4)
- And the heavens declare His righteousness, For God Himself is judge. Selah. (Psalm 50:6)
- The heavens proclaim His righteousness, and all the peoples see His glory. (Psalm 97:6)
- For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. (Romans 1:20)
Geometric measurements of quasar 3C 279 now establish that the universe is at least 5.9 billion light years across. Since light cannot travel faster than the speed of light, the light from that quasar must have been traveling for 5.9 billion years. The alternative young earth explanation is that God created the light in transit. However, we know that quasars existed only during the beginning of the universe, since none are seen closer to us than billions of light years. If God created light in transit, He would have created the light in transit from a quasar that does not now exist. Likewise, we have observed supernova explosions in galaxies millions of light years away. If God created light in transit from these objects, He would have made the light from an object that does not now exist, since it appeared to have blown up millions of years before the universe was actually created. How can the universe declare the glory and righteousness of God if it declares a lie? Like many young earth doctrines, the appearance of age argument is nowhere taught in the Bible.
Here is the testimony from the creation about the glory of God. It is still under construction, since I have been adding to it as I find new studies in the literature.
|God's Creation Proclaims||Minimum Age of the Universe (yrs.)|
|Deuterium abundance and mass density||19 billion|
|Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect||18 billion|
|Nucleochronology (decay of radioactive nuclides)||17 billion|
|Anthropic principles||17 billion|
|Star color luminosity fitting (Chaboyer)||14 billion|
|Expansion of the universe (WMAP)||13.7 billion|
|Galaxy lenses time delay (Saha)||13.5 billion|
|Age of oldest stars (U/Th, U/Ir, Th/Eu, and Th/Os dating)||13.2 billion|
|Spectral line of Uranium-238 (half-life=4.5 billion years) (Cayrel)||12.5 billion|
|Supernova standard candles (Watson)||12 billion|
|Globular Clusters (Chaboyer, Peterson, D'Antona)||12 billion|
|Gravitational lensing (Kundic, Falco)||11 billion|
|Light travel-time based on quasar-light source||10 billion|
|Cepheids (Freedman)||9 billion|
|Expanding photosphere (Schmidt)||9 billion|
|Star stream interactions in galaxies||8 billion|
|Geometric measurement to the quasar 3C 279 (Homan)||5.9 billion|
|Age of moon rocks||4.5 billion|
|Age of meteorites||4.5 billion|
|Accumulation of space dust on the moon (at the measured rate of about 2 nanograms per square centimeter per year)||4.5 billion|
|Relaxation times of star clusters||4 billion|
|Erosion on Mercury Mars, and Moon||4 billion|
|Age of earth rocks||4 billion|
|Length of days of coral fossils (coral reference)||370 million|
|Accumulation of sodium in the oceans (sodium reference)||260 million|
|Rate of continental drift to form the the Atlantic Ocean||200 million|
|Reversals of the earth's magnetic pole recorded in the Atlantic Ocean sea bottom||80 million|
|Erosion of the Grand Canyon||25 million|
|Geometric measurement to the galaxy NGC4258 (Hernstein)||23.5 million|
|Carbonate deposits: The Great Bahama Bank, off the coast of Florida, has multiple layers over 14,500 feet thick (Anselmetti)||12.4 million|
|There are sedimentary rock formations on Mars that are over 4 kilometers thick. Such layers would require tens to hundreds of millions of years of running water to form. In addition there must have been millions of years for all the water to have disappeared, since Mars is now extremely dry. (View pictures from the article) (Malin)||10 million|
|Ooids (small spheroidal bodies): Formation for adding many layers of mineral deposits involves massive time elements. (Algeo)||>7 million|
|The Green River annual layers (alternating Summer calcium carbonate and Winter organic layers)||4 million|
|Geometric measurement to the galaxy M33 (Brunthaler)||2.4 million|
|Evaporites: When bodies of salt water are trapped so that circulation is limited, evaporation produces precipitation of calcium carbonate, then calcium sulfate and finally calcium chloride out of the water. Each layer takes several years to form. The Delaware Basin formation is 1,300 feet thick, consisting of 200,000 layers, requiring at least 600,000 years to form. The Mediterranean Sea floor is underlain by about 7,000 feet of evaporites, requiring millions of years to form and evaporation of a 60 miles depth of salt water.||>3 million|
|Length of time that surface rocks have been exposed to cosmic rays (extinct volcanoes in Nevada)||830,000|
|Huge stalactites, stalagmites, and columns in the Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico (Carlsbad reference)||500,000|
|Vostok ice core in Antarctica (Petit)||420,000|
|Thickness of coral reefs||130,000|
|Organic banks (The Capitan Reef of West Texas, 2,000 feet thick in places, with fossilized remains of organisms.)||100,000|
|Radiocarbon dating of wood (upper limit of dating method)||50,000|
|Bristlecone pine trees in California||10,000|
Dolomite formation: Replacement of calcium carbonate particles in lime sediment or lime rock gives strong evidence of vast amounts of time required. Rate is as slow as 200 million years/mm. (Arvidson)
- An Evaluation of Evidence for the Age of the Universe
- How Old is the Earth According to the Bible and Science?
- Why AIG's Origins Science vs. Operational Science Distinction is Bogus
- Rebuttal to 'Ten Problems Against the Big Bang'
- Missing Isotopes from Accuracy in Genesis
- Day-Age Genesis One Interpretation
- Biblical Evidence for Long Creation Days
- Is the Young-Earth Interpretation Biblical?
- Your father's blessings are greater than the blessings of the ancient mountains, than the bounty of the age-old hills. Let all these rest on the head of Joseph, on the brow of the prince among his brothers. (Genesis 49:26)
- Chaboyer, B., P. Demarque, P.J. Kernan, and L.M. Krauss. 1996. A Lower
Limit on the Age of the Universe. Science 271: 957-961.
D. N. Spergel, R. Bean, O. Doré, M. R. Nolta, C. L. Bennett, J. Dunkley, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, E. Komatsu, L. Page, H. V. Peiris, L. Verde, M. Halpern, R. S. Hill, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S. S. Meyer, N. Odegard, G. S. Tucker, J. L. Weiland, E. Wollack, E. L. Wright. 2007. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Three Year Results: Implications for Cosmology. Astrophysics arXiv:astro-ph/0603449v2.
- Saha, P., J. Coles, A. V. Macciò, and L. L. R. Williams. 2006. The Hubble Time Inferred from 10 Time Delay Lenses. The Astrophysical Journal 650: L17-L20.
- Frebel, A., N. Christlieb, J. E. Norris, C. Thom, T. C. Beers, and J. Rhee. 2007. Discovery of HE 1523-0901, a Strongly r-Process–enhanced Metal-poor Star with Detected Uranium. Astrophysical Journal, 660:L117-L120.
- Cayrel, R., V. Hill, T. C. Beers, B. Barbuy, M. Spite, F. Spite, B. Plez, J. Anderson, P. Bonifacio, P. Francois, P. Molaro, B. Nordstrom, F. Primas. 2001. Measurement of stellar age from uranium decay. Nature 409, 691-692.
- Watson, A. 1998. Cosmology: The Universe Shows Its Age. Science 279: 981-983
- Homan, D.C. and J.F.C. Wardle. 2000. Direct distance measurements to superluminal radio sources. Astrophysical Journal 535: 575-585.
- Scientific observation shows that erosion of the Grand Canyon takes place at a rate of 1 ft. every 5,000 years. If the Canyon started out flat, it would take 25,000,000 years for the Colorado river to erode 5000 ft of the Grand Canyon. (library.thinkquest.org)
- Hernstein, et al. 1999. A geometric distance to the galaxy NGC 4258 from orbital motions in a nuclear gas disk. Nature 400: 539-541.
- Flavio S. Anselmetti, Gregor P. Eberli, and Zan-Dong Ding. 2000. From the Great Bahama Bank into the Straits of Florida: A margin architecture controlled by sea-level fluctuations and ocean currents. GSA Bulletin 112: 829-844.
- Malin, M.C. and K. S. Edgett. 2000. Sedimentary Rocks of Early Mars. Science
290: 1927-1937. (View
pictures from the article)
Kerr, R.A. 2000. PLANETARY SCIENCE: A Dripping Wet Early Mars Emerging From New Pictures. Science 290: 1879-1880
- Algeo, T.J., and Watson, B.A., 1995, Calcite, aragonite, and bimineralic ooids in Missourian (Upper Pennsylvanian) strata of Kansas: Stratigraphic and geographic patterns of variation, in Pausé, P.H., and Candelaria, M.P., eds., Carbonate Facies and Sequence Stratigraphy: Practical Applications of Carbonate Models: Permian Basin Section SEPM, Publ. 95-36, p. 141-173.
- Brunthaler, A., M. J. Reid, H. Falcke, L. J. Greenhill, C. Henkel. 2005. The Geometric Distance and Proper Motion of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33). Science 307:1440.
- Because of the tidal interaction with the moon, the rotation of the earth is gradually slowing, by about 0.005 seconds per year. About 370 million years ago, each day would have been only 22.7 hours long! Studies of rugose coral fossils that were independently estimated to be 370 million years old revealed that when they were alive a day lasted about 22 hours. This relationship has been confirmed with other coral fossils.
- If we assumed that all of the minerals which are carried by rivers into the oceans remains trapped in the oceans, then it would take 260 million years for the concentration of sodium to reach its present level (assuming plankton, fish and plants do not adsorb sodium, which they do).
Photo courtesy of the National Park Service.
- Petit et al. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429-436.
- The coral reef at Eniwetok atoll in the Pacific Ocean has been measured to have a thickness of up to 4,610 feet. Even the most optimistic coral growth rates would require that the atoll be over 130,000 years of age.
- Some bristlecone pine trees in California date back to 2500 BC. But their tree rings have been matched with those of dead trees; this shows that the latter germinated about 7000 BC
- Arvidson, R. S. and FRED T. MACKENZIE. 1999. The dolomite problem; control of precipitation kinetics by temperature and saturation state. American J. of Science 299: 257–288.
Last updated June 25, 2007