Implications of the Big Bang

l Time, space, matter and energy all came into existence at once 
l Time is a created dimension

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Slide 16 of 22

Stephen Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose extended the equations for general relativity to include space and time.1 Not only space, but also time has a beginning - at the moment of creation. Studies in particle physics have shown that our dimension of time is really only half a dimension, since time can only move forward2 (forget the time travel movies - this is scientifically impossible). If God existed in only one dimension of time, then He would have had to have been created at one point. The Bible says God was not created, but has existed from eternity past to eternity future. The Bible also suggests God created time and was acting before time began,3 confirming that God exists in at least two dimensions of time. In addition, the Bible states God can compress or expand our time line,4 based upon what He wants to do. For God to turn a day into 1000 years and 1000 years into a day requires that He exist in at least two dimensions of time.

Later, Hawking tried to get around the concept of two dimensions of time by appealing to "imaginary time." Like imaginary numbers, imaginary time has not comparable physical reality, and so, could not explain what was happening before the creation of the universe. A real, second dimension of time would accomplish the same purpose as imaginary time, but could at least be theoretically possible. In his later book, The Nature of Space and Time, Hawking stated, "Today virtually everyone agrees that the universe and time itself had a beginning at the Big Bang."5

References Top of page

  1. "The conclusion of this lecture is that the universe has not existed forever. Rather, the universe, and time itself, had a beginning in the Big Bang, about 15 billion years ago." Stephen Hawking The Beginning of Time.
    Penrose, R. 1966. An analysis of the structure of space-time. Adams Prize Essay, Cambridge University.
    Hawking, S.W. 1966. Singularities and the Geometry of space-time. Adams Prize Essay, Cambridge University.
    Hawking, S.W. and G.F.R. Ellis. 1968. The cosmic black-body radiation and the existence of singularities in our universe. Astrophysical Journal 152: 25-36.
    Hawking, S.W. and R. Penrose. 1970. The singularities of gravitational collapse and cosmology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: 529-548.
  2. 1998. Particle decays reveal arrow of time. Science 282: 602-603.
  3. No, we speak of God's secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. (1 Corinthians 2:7)
    This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time (2 Timothy 1:9)
    The hope of eternal life, which God... promised before the beginning of time (Titus 1:2)
    To the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen. (Jude 1:25)
  4. But do not let this one fact escape your notice, beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. (2 Peter 3:8)
    For a thousand years in Thy sight are like yesterday when it passes by, or as a watch in the night. (Psalm 90:4)
  5. Hawking, S.W. and Penrose, R. 1996. The Nature of Space and Time, p. 20.
Last Modified October 4, 2004


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